OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 44, Iss. 11 — Apr. 10, 2005
  • pp: 2189–2201

Multipass open-path Fourier-transform infrared measurements for nonintrusive monitoring of gas turbine exhaust composition

Klaus Schäfer, Klaus Brockmann, Jörg Heland, Peter Wiesen, Carsten Jahn, and Olivier Legras  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 11, pp. 2189-2201 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1432 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The detection limits for NO and NO2 in turbine exhausts by nonintrusive monitoring have to be improved. Multipass mode Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrometry and use of a White mirror system were found from a sensitivity study with spectra simulations in the mid-infrared to be essential for the retrieval of NO2 abundances. A new White mirror system with a parallel infrared beam was developed and tested successfully with a commercial FTIR spectrometer in different turbine test beds. The minimum detection limits for a typical turbine plume of 50 cm in diameter are approximately 6 parts per million (ppm) for NO and 9 ppm for NO2 (as well 100 ppm for CO2 and 4 ppm for CO).

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(280.1120) Remote sensing and sensors : Air pollution monitoring
(280.1740) Remote sensing and sensors : Combustion diagnostics
(300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption
(300.2140) Spectroscopy : Emission
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared

Original Manuscript: June 9, 2004
Revised Manuscript: November 8, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: November 9, 2004
Published: April 10, 2005

Klaus Schäfer, Klaus Brockmann, Jörg Heland, Peter Wiesen, Carsten Jahn, and Olivier Legras, "Multipass open-path Fourier-transform infrared measurements for nonintrusive monitoring of gas turbine exhaust composition," Appl. Opt. 44, 2189-2201 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Aviation and the Global Atmosphere (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999).
  2. International Civil Aviation Organization, “Environmental protection,” in Aircraft Engine Emissions, 2nd ed. (International Civil Aviation Organization, Montreal, Quebec, 1993), Annex 16, Vol. 2.
  3. K. Schäfer, J. Heland, D. H. Lister, C. W. Wilson, R. J. Howes, R. S. Falk, E. Lindermeïr, M. Birk, G. Wagner, P. Haschberger, M. Bernard, O. Legras, P. Wiesen, R. Kurtenbach, K. J. Brockmann, V. Kriesche, M. Hilton, G. Bishop, R. Clarke, J. Workman, M. Caola, R. Geatches, R. Burrows, J. D. Black, P. Hervé, J. Vally, “Nonintrusive optical measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions and comparison with standard intrusive techniques,” Appl. Opt. 39, 441–455 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. W. Demtröder, Laserspektroskopie. Grundlagen und Techniken (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991).
  5. H. A. Beck, R. Niessner, C. Haisch, “Development and characterisation of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 375, 1136–1143 (2003). [PubMed]
  6. S. Karellas, M. Raindl, J. Karl, “Online optical analysis of the product gas from gasification of biomass,” in Fourth Konferenz über Optische Analysemesstechnik in Industrie und Umwelt (VDI-Berichte, Frankfurt am. Main, Germany, 2004), Vol. 1863, pp. 65–71.
  7. A. Burkert, D. Grebner, D. Müller, W. Triebel, “Single shot imaging of formaldehyde in hydrocarbon flames by XeF excimer laser induced fluorescence,” in Proceeding of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 1655–1661. [CrossRef]
  8. S. V. Naik, N. M. Laurendeau, “Measurements of absolute CH concentrations by cavity ring-down spectroscopy and linear laser-induced fluorescence in laminar, counterflow partially premixed and nonpremixed flames at atmospheric pressure,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5116–5125 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Wolfrum, T. Dreier, V. Ebert, C. Schulz, “Laser-based combustion diagnostics,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, New York, 2000), pp. 2118–2148.
  11. W. B. Grant, R. H. Kagann, W. A. McClenny, “Optical remote measurement of toxic gases,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42, 18–30 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. U. White, “Long optical paths of large apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 285–288 (1942). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Haus, K. Schäfer, W. Baútzer, J. Heland, H. Mosebach, H. Bittner, T. Eisenmann, “Mobile Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy monitoring of air pollution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5682–5689 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Heland, K. Schäfer, “Analysis of aircraft exhausts with Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4922–4931 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Heland, K. Schäfer, “Determination of major combustion products in aircraft exhausts by FTIR emission spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 3067–3072 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992). [CrossRef]
  17. L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “HITRAN HAWKS and HITEMP high-temperature molecular database,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV, J. C. Dainty, ed., Proc. SPIE2471, 105–111 (1995). [CrossRef]
  18. R. M. Goody, Y. L. Yung, Atmospheric Radiation (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1986).
  19. J. M. Hartmann, M. Y. Perrin, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “The infrared continuum of pure water vapor: calculations and high-temperature measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 675–691 (1993). [CrossRef]
  20. I. Barnes, K. H. Becker, E. H. Fink, A. Reimer, F. Zabel, H. Niki, “Rate constant and products of the reactions CS2 + OH in the presence of O2,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 15, 631–645 (1983). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited