OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 44, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2005
  • pp: 2501–2510

Monochromatic heterodyne fiber-optic profile sensor for spatially resolved velocity measurements with frequency division multiplexing

Thorsten Pfister, Lars Büttner, Katsuaki Shirai, and Jürgen Czarske

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 13, pp. 2501-2510 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1022 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Investigating shear flows is important in technical applications as well as in fundamental research. Velocity measurements with high spatial resolution are necessary. Laser Doppler anemometry allows nonintrusive precise measurements, but the spatial resolution is limited by the size of the measurement volume to ∼50 µm. A new laser Doppler profile sensor is proposed, enabling determination of the velocity profile inside the measurement volume. Two fringe systems with contrary fringe spacing gradients are generated to determine the position as well as the velocity of passing tracer particles. Physically discriminating between the two measuring channels is done by a frequency-division-multiplexing technique with acousto-optic modulators. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and a fiber-optic measuring head were employed, resulting in a portable and flexible sensor. In the center of the measurement volume of ∼1-mm length, a spatial resolution of ∼5 µm was obtained. Spatially resolved measurements of the Blasius velocity profile are presented. Small velocities as low as 3 cm/s are measured. The sensor is applied in a wind tunnel to determine the wall shear stress of a boundary layer flow. All measurement results show good agreement with the theoretical prediction.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(120.7250) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Velocimetry

Thorsten Pfister, Lars Büttner, Katsuaki Shirai, and Jürgen Czarske, "Monochromatic heterodyne fiber-optic profile sensor for spatially resolved velocity measurements with frequency division multiplexing," Appl. Opt. 44, 2501-2510 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. H. Schlichting, Boundary Layer Theory (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987).
  2. M. Fischer, J. Jovanovic, and F. Durst, "Reynolds number effects in the near-wall region of turbulent channel flows," Phys. Fluids 13, 1755-1767 (2001).
  3. C. D. Meinhart, S. T. Wereley, and J. G. Santiago, "Micron-resolution velocimetry techniques," in Laser Techniques Applied to Fluid Mechanics, Selected Papers from the Ninth International Symposium, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1998 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), pp. 57-70, paper I.4.
  4. H. Abe, H. Kawamura, and Y. Matsuo, "Direct numerical simulation of a fully developed turbulent channel flow with respect to the Reynolds number dependence," Trans. ASME J. Fluids Eng. 123, 382-393 (2001).
  5. D. Matovic and C. Tropea, "Spectral peak interpolation with application to LDA signal processing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 1100-1106 (1991).
  6. J. Czarske and O. Dölle, "Quadrature demodulation technique used in laser Doppler anemometry," Electron. Lett. 43, 547-549 (1998).
  7. L. Büttner and J. Czarske, "A multimode-fiber laser-Doppler anemometer for highly spatially resolved velocity measurements using low-coherence light," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1891-1903 (2001).
  8. V. Strunck, G. Grosche, and D. Dopheide, "New laser Doppler sensors for spatial velocity information," in Proceedings of the International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities ICIAF'93, Saint-Louis, France, 1993 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1993), pp. 36.1-36.5.
  9. V. Strunck, T. Sodomann, H. Müller, and D. Dopheide, "How to get spatial resolution inside probe volumes of commercial 3D LDA systems," Exp. Fluids 36, 141-145 (2004).
  10. J. Czarske, "Laser Doppler velocity profile sensor using a chromatic coding," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 52-57 (2001).
  11. J. Czarske, L. Büttner, T. Razik, and H. Müller, "Boundary layer velocity measurements by a laser Doppler profile sensor with micrometer spatial resolution," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1979-1989 (2002).
  12. D. A. Jackson, J. D. C. Jones, and R. K. Y. Chan, "A high-power fiber-optic laser Doppler velocimeter," J. Phys. E 17, 977-980 (1984).
  13. S. L. Kaufmann and L. M. Fingerson, "Fiber optics in LDV applications," in Proceedings, International Conference on Laser Anemometry--Advances and Applications, Manchester, UK, 16-18 September 1985 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 53-65.
  14. M. Stieglmeier and C. Tropea, "Mobile fiber-optic laser Doppler anemometer," Appl. Opt. 31, 4096-4105 (1992).
  15. J. Czarske and H. Müller, "Two-dimensional directional fiber-optic laser Doppler anemometer based on heterodyning by means of a chirp frequency modulated Nd:YAG miniature ring laser," Opt. Commun. 132, 421-426 (1996).
  16. H. Müller, H. Wang, and D. Dopheide, "Fiber optical multicomponent LDA-system using the optical frequency difference of powerful DBR-laser diodes," in Developments in Laser Techniques and Fluid Mechanics, Selected Papers from the Eighth International Symposium, Lisbon, Portugal, 8-11 July 1996 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 11-21, paper I.2.
  17. D. Dopheide, V. Strunck, and H. J. Pfeifer, "Miniaturized multicomponent laser Doppler anemometers using high frequency pulsed diode lasers and new electronic signal acquisition systems," Exp. Fluids 9, 309-316 (1990).
  18. L. Büttner, "Untersuchung neuartiger Laser-Doppler-Verfahren zur hochauflösenden Geschwindigkeitsmessung," Ph.D. dissertation (Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen, Germany, 2004).
  19. H. Blasius, "Grenzschichten in Flüssigkeiten mit kleiner Reibung," Z. Math. Phys. 56, 1-37 (1908), NACA Tech. Memo 1256.
  20. H-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
  21. F. Durst, H. Kikura, I. Lekakis, J. Jovanovic, and Q. Ye, "Wall shear stress determination from near-wall mean velocity data in turbulent pipe and channel flows," Exp. Fluids 20, 417-428 (1996).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited