Recording of periodic variations of amplitude and phase by the interference of coherent laser beams in a hologram offers a natural means for creating one-, two-, and three-dimensional photonic crystals. For device applications such as waveguides in optical communications, one usually needs to create defects in photonic crystals. We present an analysis and an experimental demonstration of a double-exposure method for creating photonic crystals with line defects. The idea is based on the principle of superposition of holographic grating patterns of different spatial periods while the recording medium is held stationary and on the application of a threshold to the recording medium. We use the same symmetrical optical architecture to achieve nondefective and defective holographic photonic crystals. The technique may be extended to the creation of defects based on functional synthesis by means of Fourier series, by use of light sources of other wavelengths with an appropriate high-contrast recording material.
© 2005 Optical Society of America
(090.2880) Holography : Holographic interferometry
(090.7330) Holography : Volume gratings
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication
Chen Chang, Tzu-Min Yan, and Hua-Kuang Liu, "Creation of line defects in holographic photonic crystals by a double-exposure thresholding method," Appl. Opt. 44, 2580-2591 (2005)