In this paper, a micro gradient-index conical lens, which has a larger acceptance angle than a conventional microlens, is presented. Methods on how to simulate these lenses in commercial optical design software CodeV are introduced, and the effects of several index profiles and cone shapes are compared in simulation. Results show that a micro gradient-index conical lens has a four times larger acceptance angle compared with a microlens. Additionally, conical lenses with a Gaussian-index profile show a larger acceptance angle than those with a solid refractive index. Fabricated conical lenses show an acceptance angle of more than 27° for a detection threshold of 50%, which agrees with the simulation result.
© 2005 Optical Society of America
Deqiang Song, Michael Sanchez, Matthias Gross, and Sadik Esener, "Micro gradient-index conical lenses: simulation and fabrication methods," Appl. Opt. 44, 3747-3751 (2005)