We have measured the stability of a variety of photodiodes exposed to 157-nm light from a pulsed excimer laser by using a radiometry beamline at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The intense, pulsed laser light exposed the photodiodes, whereas the low-intensity, continuously tunable light from the synchrotron source measured changes in the characteristics of the photodiodes, such as in the responsivity and the reflectance from the surface of a photodiode. Photodiodes studied include both silicon pn-junction and Schottky-barrier types. Among these photodiodes, we found that the damage mechanism for photodiodes with SiO2-based passivating layers is mainly the buildup of SiO2–Si interface trap states. The interface trap state buildup is well known for other semiconductor devices and is generally recognized as a product induced by radiation with an energy more than the 9-eV SiO2 bandgap energy rather than the 7.9-eV energy of the 157-nm radiation. Based on the generation of interface trap states, a model is proposed to describe the dependence of detector responsivity on exposure to 157-nm radiation. We also observed slow recovery in some of the damaged photodiodes, confirming that some of the interface trap states are only semipermanent. Radiation damage induced by low-power continuous 157-nm synchrotron light was also studied. As for the other photodiodes with no SiO2 layers, measurement results support the assumption that the changes in responsivity are due mainly to the deposition of thin layers on the tops of the detectors during laser irradiation.
© 2005 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: April 27, 2004
Revised Manuscript: October 1, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: October 3, 2004
Published: January 10, 2005
Ping-Shine Shaw, Rajeev Gupta, and Keith R. Lykke, "Stability of photodiodes under irradiation with a 157-nm pulsed excimer laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 197-207 (2005)