The emissivity of two-dimensional anisotropic rough sea surfaces with non-Gaussian statistics is investigated. The emissivity derivation is of importance for retrieval of the sea-surface temperature or equivalent temperature of a rough sea surface by infrared thermal imaging. The well-known Cox-Munk slope probability-density function, considered non-Gaussian, is used for the emissivity derivation, in which the skewness and the kurtosis (related to the third- and fourth-order statistics, respectively) are included. The shadowing effect, which is significant for grazing angles, is also taken into account. The geometric optics approximation is assumed to be valid, which means that the rough surface is modeled as a collection of facets reflecting locally the light in the specular direction. In addition, multiple reflections are ignored. Numerical results of the emissivity are presented for Gaussian and non-Gaussian statistics, for moderate wind speeds, for near-infrared wavelengths, for emission angles ranging from 0° (nadir) to 90° (horizon), and according to the wind direction. In addition, the emissivity is compared with both measurements and a Monte Carlo ray-tracing method.
© 2005 Optical Society of America
(000.5490) General : Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(260.3060) Physical optics : Infrared
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(290.5880) Scattering : Scattering, rough surfaces
Christophe Bourlier, "Unpolarized infrared emissivity with shadow from anisotropic rough sea surfaces with non-Gaussian statistics," Appl. Opt. 44, 4335-4349 (2005)