## Optimization of finite-length input volume holographic grating couplers illuminated by finite-width incident beams

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 21, pp. 4435-4446 (2005)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.44.004435

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### Abstract

A finite volume holographic grating coupler (VHGC) normally illuminated with various incident-beam profiles (such as a Gaussian beam, a flat cosine-squared beam, and an exponential-decay beam) with finite beam widths for input coupling is rigorously analyzed by use of the finite-difference frequency-domain method. The effects of the incident-beam width, the incident-beam position, the incident-beam profile, and the incident-beam angle of incidence on the input coupling efficiency are investigated. The optimum conditions for input coupling are determined. Both a VHGC embedded in the waveguide film region and a VHGC placed in the waveguide cover region are investigated. For a given finite VHGC, the input coupling efficiencies are strongly dependent on incident-beam widths, incident-beam positions, and incident-beam angles of incidence, but are only weakly dependent on incident-beam profiles.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

**OCIS Codes**

(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings

(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings

(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory

(050.7330) Diffraction and gratings : Volume gratings

(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

**Citation**

Shun-Der Wu, Elias N. Glytsis, and Thomas K. Gaylord, "Optimization of finite-length input volume holographic grating couplers illuminated by finite-width incident beams," Appl. Opt. **44**, 4435-4446 (2005)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-21-4435

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