OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 44, Iss. 21 — Jul. 20, 2005
  • pp: 4547–4556

Rod and spherical silica microlenses fabricated by CO2 laser melting

Sergio Calixto, Martha Rosete-Aguilar, Francisco J. Sanchez-Marin, and Lizbeth Castañeda-Escobar  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 21, pp. 4547-4556 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1663 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The fabrication and testing of glass microlenses with rod and spherical shapes are described. The sizes of the lenses range from tens of micrometers to several millimeters. The surfaces of the lenses were fabricated by the melting method. These surfaces have been studied by several methods. The theoretical behavior of the lenses was investigated by ray tracing. Some applications of the lenses are presented.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(350.3950) Other areas of optics : Micro-optics

Original Manuscript: August 26, 2004
Revised Manuscript: December 17, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: December 18, 2004
Published: July 20, 2005

Sergio Calixto, Martha Rosete-Aguilar, Francisco J. Sanchez-Marin, and Lizbeth Castañeda-Escobar, "Rod and spherical silica microlenses fabricated by CO2 laser melting," Appl. Opt. 44, 4547-4556 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. P. Herzig, ed., Microoptics—Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 1998).
  2. N. Borrelli, Microoptics Technology: Fabrication and Applications of Lens Arrays and Devices (Marcel Dekker, 1999).
  3. Z. D. Popovic, R. A. Sprage, G. A. Neville-Connell, “Technique for the monolithic fabrication of microlens array,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1281–1284 (1984). [CrossRef]
  4. E.-B. Kley, H. J. Fuchs, A. Kilian, “Fabrication of glass lenses by the melting technology,” in Lithographic and Micro-machining Techniques for Optical Component Fabrication,E.-B. Kley, H. P. Herzig, eds., Proc. SPIE4440, 85–92 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Eitel, S. J. Fancey, H. P. Gauggel, K. H. Gulden, W. Bach-told, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Highly uniform vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers integrated with microlens arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 459–461 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Calixto, M. Ornelas-Rodriguez, “Mid-infrared microlenses fabricated by the melting method,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1212–1214 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Calixto, “Silicone microlenses and interference gratings,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3355–3361 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. M. Hartmann, O. Kibar, S. C. Esener, “Characterization of a polymer microlens fabricated by use of the hydrophobic effect,” Opt. Lett. 25, 975–977 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. F. Vega, N. Lupon, J. A. Cebrian, F. Laguarta, “Laser application for optical glass polishing,” Opt. Eng. 37, 272–279 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Ocana, A. Garcia-Beltran, F. Laguarta, J. Armengol, N. Lupon, F. Vega, “Laser heat treatment driven by integrated beams: role of irradiation nonuniformities,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4570–4576 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Udrea, H. Orun, A. Alacakir, “Laser polishing of optical fiber end surface,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2026–2030 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Bartley, W. Goltsos, “Laser ablation of refractive microoptic lenslet arrays,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications,C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1544, 140–145 (1991).
  13. M. Wakaki, Y. Komachi, G. Kanai, “Microlenses and microlens arrays formed on a glass plate by use of a CO2 laser,” Appl. Opt. 37, 627–631 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. V. P. Veiko, E. B. Yaklovev, V. V. Frolov, V. A. Chujko, A. K. Kromi, M. O. Abbakumov, A. T. Shakola, P. A. Fomichov, “Laser heating and evaporation of glass and glass burning materials and its application for creating MOC,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications,C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1544, 152–163 (1991).
  15. P. Veiko, A. K. Kromin, E. B. Yakovlev, “Laser fabrication of MOC based on soft laser heating of glass and glass like materials,” in Miniature Micro-Optics and Micromechanics,N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 159–167 (1993). [CrossRef]
  16. V. P. Veiko, V. A. Chuiko, P. A. Fomichev, G. K. Kostyuk, A. K. Kromin, A. T. Shakola, E. B. Yakovlev, “Laser technologies for miniature optical elements: approach and solutions,” in Miniature Micro-Optics and Micromechanics,N. C. Gallagher, C. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 114–127 (1993). [CrossRef]
  17. P. Veiko, Y. B. Yaklovlev, “Physical fundamentals of laser forming of micro-optical components,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3567–3571 (1994). [CrossRef]
  18. V. P. Veiko, N. B. Voznesensky, A. Petrov, V. F. Pashin, N. N. Voznesenskaya, S. M. Metev, C. Wochnowski, “Optical interconnections optimization based on a classical approach,” in Photon Processing in Microelectronics and Photonics II, A. Pique et al., eds., Proc. SPIE4977, 569–577 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. Ref. 1, p. 132.
  20. U. C. Paek, A. L. Weaver, “Formation of a spherical lens at optical fiber ends with a CO2 laser,” Appl. Opt. 14, 294–298 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. V. Russo, G. C. Righini, S. Sottini, S. Trigari, “Lens-ended fibers for medical applications: a new fabrication technique,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3277–3283 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Schott Glass Technologies, http://www.us.schott.com/balllens .
  23. Edmund Industrial Optics, 101 East Gloucester Pike, Barrington, N.J. 08007.
  24. G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1215–1228 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, 1978), p. 203.
  26. H. H. Hopkins, “Improvements in or relating to optical systems,” British patent954,629 (8April1964).
  27. Ph. Nussbaum, R. Volkel, H. P. Herzig, M. Eisner, S. Haselbeck, “Design, fabrication and testing of microlenses arrays for sensors and microsystems,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 617–636 (1997). [CrossRef]
  28. B. T. Teipen, D. C. MacFarlane, “Modulation transfer function measurements of microjetted microlenses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2040–2046 (1999). [CrossRef]
  29. T. R. Jay, M. B. Stern, R. E. Knowlden, “Effect of refractive microlens array fabrication parameters on optical quality,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications II,C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 236–245 (1992).
  30. Ph. Nussbaum, H. P. Herzig, “Low numerical aperture refractive microlenses in fused silica,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1412–1414 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited