OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 44, Iss. 23 — Aug. 10, 2005
  • pp: 4822–4829

Fiber-Bragg-grating force sensor based on a wavelength-switching actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser

Yunqi Liu, Kin Seng Chiang, and Pak Lim Chu  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 23, pp. 4822-4829 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.44.004822


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (176 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) transverse-force sensor based on a wavelength-switching actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed, in which a FBG is used as both the sensing element and the wavelength-selection element of the laser. When a force is applied to the FBG, the induced birefringence in the FBG causes the laser to emit pulses at two close wavelengths, whose separation is proportional to the applied force. To suppress the interference between the two wavelengths, the laser is made to emit at the two wavelengths alternately by use of a polarization-switching technique. The wavelength separation is converted into a time difference by transmission of the laser pulses through a dispersive single-mode fiber, so the wavelength measurement is replaced by the less-expensive time measurement. The output of the sensor is insensitive to temperature and axial strain changes along the FBG. To interrogate similar FBG sensing elements connected in series it is necessary only to change the modulating frequency of an electro-optic modulator to select the corresponding laser cavity. The practicability of this approach was demonstrated experimentally with two multiplexed sensing elements.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers

History
Original Manuscript: November 18, 2004
Revised Manuscript: March 3, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: March 22, 2005
Published: August 10, 2005

Citation
Yunqi Liu, Kin Seng Chiang, and Pak Lim Chu, "Fiber-Bragg-grating force sensor based on a wavelength-switching actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 4822-4829 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-23-4822


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. L. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. P. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. J. Rao, “In-fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355–375 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. A. D. Kersey, W. W. Morey, “Multiplexed Bragg grating fibre-laser strain-sensor system with mode-locked interrogation,” Electron. Lett. 29, 112–114 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. A. D. Kersey, W. W. Morey, “Multi-element Bragg grating based fibre-laser strain-sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29, 964–966 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kim, J. Kwon, S. Kim, B. Lee, “Multiplexed strain sensor using fiber grating-tuned fiber laser with a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 350–352 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Yu, L. Lui, H. Tam, W. Chung, “Fiber-laser-based wavelength-division multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 702–704 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. S. M. Melle, A. T. Alavie, S. Karr, T. Coroy, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strain sensor system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 263–266 (1993). [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single- and multiple fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 267–270 (1993). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Talaverano, S. Abad, S. Jarabo, M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength fiber laser sources with Bragg-grating sensor multiplexing capability,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 553–558 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, P. L. Chu, “Multiplexing of temperature-compensated fiber-Bragg-grating magnetostrictive sensors with a dual-wavelength pulse laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 572–574 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, “Effects of diametric load on fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in low birefringence fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1223–1224 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, T. Bennett, “A fiber optic sensor for transverse strain measurement,” Exp. Mech. 39, 203–209 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Polarimetric heterodyning Bragg-grating fiber-laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1976–1978 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. L. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric Er3+-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser sensor for differential pressure and force measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1869–1871 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Leblanc, S. T. Vohra, T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, “Transverse load sensing by use of pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1091–1093 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Fibre optic load sensors with high transverse strain sensitivity based on long-period gratings in B/Ge co-doped fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35, 661–663 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. C. C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “A polarization-maintaining fibre Bragg grating interrogation system for multi-axis strain sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1446–1449 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. E. Chehura, C. C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct. 13, 888–895 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. K. S. Chiang, “Temperature sensitivity of coated stress-induced birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Eng. 36, 999–1007 (1997). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, P. L. Chu, “Fiber-Bragg-grating force sensor based on a wavelength-switched self-seeded Fabry–Perot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 450–452 (2005). [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Zhao, C. Shu, “A fiber laser for effective generation of tunable single- and dual-wavelength mode-locked optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1156–1158 (1998). [CrossRef]
  22. M. May-Alarcon, E. A. Kuzin, R. A. Vazuez-Sanchez, M. G. Shlyagin, I. Marquez-Borbon, “Multipoint fiber Bragg grating laser sensor interrogated by the intermodal beating frequency,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2246–2249 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited