OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 44, Iss. 23 — Aug. 10, 2005
  • pp: 4884–4901

Experimental and simulated angular profiles of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance emission from turbid media

Steven C. Gebhart, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, and Wei-Chiang Lin  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 23, pp. 4884-4901 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2794 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Given the wavelength dependence of sample optical properties and the selective sampling of surface emission angles by noncontact imaging systems, differences in angular profiles due to excitation angle and optical properties can distort relative emission intensities acquired at different wavelengths. To investigate this potentiality, angular profiles of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence emission from turbid media were evaluated experimentally and by Monte Carlo simulation for a range of incident excitation angles and sample optical properties. For emission collected within the limits of a semi-infinite excitation region, normalized angular emission profiles are symmetric, roughly Lambertian, and only weakly dependent on sample optical properties for fluorescence at all excitation angles and for diffuse reflectance at small excitation angles relative to the surface normal. Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance within the emission plane orthogonal to the oblique component of the excitation also possess this symmetric form. Diffuse reflectance within the incidence plane is biased away from the excitation source for large excitation angles. The degree of bias depends on the scattering anisotropy and albedo of the sample and results from the correlation between photon directions upon entrance and emission. Given the strong dependence of the diffuse reflectance angular emission profile shape on incident excitation angle and sample optical properties, excitation and collection geometry has the potential to induce distortions within diffuse reflectance spectra unrelated to tissue characteristics.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
(170.6280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence

Original Manuscript: August 3, 2004
Revised Manuscript: January 11, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: March 20, 2005
Published: August 10, 2005

Steven C. Gebhart, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, and Wei-Chiang Lin, "Experimental and simulated angular profiles of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance emission from turbid media," Appl. Opt. 44, 4884-4901 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 3, 259–267 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Sokolov, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical spectroscopy for detection of neoplasia,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 651–658 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. J. Bigio, J. R. Mourant, “Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopies for tissue diagnostics: fluorescence spectroscopy and elastic-scattering spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 803–814 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Mahadevan-Jansen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Raman spectroscopy for the detection of cancers and precancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 31–70 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Ramanujam, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues,” Neoplasia 2, 89–117 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Richards-Kortum, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Y. Qu, Z. Huang, J. Hua, “Excitation-and-collection geometry insensitive fluorescence imaging of tissue-simulating turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3344–3356 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. D. Y. Churmakov, I. V. Meglinski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Influence of refractive index matching on the photon diffuse reflectance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4271–4285 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W.-F. Cheong, “Summary of optical properties,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue,A. Welch, M. v. Gemert, ed. (Plenum, 1995), pp. 275–304.
  10. H. van de Hulst, “Rigorous scattering theory for spheres of arbitrary size (Mie theory),” in Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981), pp. 114–130.
  11. S. Jacques, L. Wang, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue,A. Welch, M. v. Gemert, ed. (Plenum, 1995), pp. 73–100. [CrossRef]
  12. S. C. Gebhart, W.-C. Lin, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding–doubling,” submitted to Phys. Med. Biol.
  13. A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, S. Warren, “Propagation of fluorescent light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166–178 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Prahl, M. van Gemert, A. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding–doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059–2073 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, D. R. Wyman, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissue—I: Model predictions and comparison with diffusion theory,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1162–1168 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Nilsson, M. Larsson, G. E. Nilsson, T. Stromberg, “Photon pathlength determination based on spatially resolved diffuse reflectance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 478–485 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. J. Zhang, B. Q. Chen, S. Z. Zhao, S. M. Yang, R. P. Chen, D. C. Song, “Noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties based on radiative transfer theory,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36, 353–359 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. M. J. McShane, S. Rastegar, M. Pishko, G. L. Cote, “Monte Carlo modeling for implantable fluorescent analyte sensors,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 624–632 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Wu, F. Partovi, M. S. Field, R. P. Rava, “Diffuse reflectance from turbid media: an analytical model of photon migration,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1115–1121 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited