OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 44, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 2005
  • pp: 5230–5238

Photothermal deflection in multilayer coatings: modeling and experiment

Laurent Gallais and Mireille Commandré  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 25, pp. 5230-5238 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (311 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A model of the photothermal deflection signal in multilayer coatings is presented that takes into account optical interference effects and heat flow within the stack. Measurements are then taken of high-reflectivity HfO2/SiO2 ultraviolet mirrors made by plasma ion assisted deposition and compared to calculations. Good agreement is found between the experimental results and the model. Using this model for the calibration and the setup described, one can measure absorption in multilayer coatings accurately down to 10^−7 of the incident power.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(310.0310) Thin films : Thin films
(350.5340) Other areas of optics : Photothermal effects

Laurent Gallais and Mireille Commandré, "Photothermal deflection in multilayer coatings: modeling and experiment," Appl. Opt. 44, 5230-5238 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, W. Jackson, and N. M. Amer, "Sensitive photothermal deflection technique for measuring absorption in optically thin media," Opt. Lett. 5, 377-379 (1980).
  2. J. C. Murphy and L. C. Aamodt, "Photothermal spectroscopy using optical beam probing: mirage effect," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4580-4588 (1980). [CrossRef]
  3. E. Welsh and D. Ristau, "Photothermal measurements on optical thin films," Appl. Opt. 34, 7339-7253 (1995).
  4. M. Commandré and E. Pelletier, "Measurement of absorption losses in TiO2 films by a collinear photothermal deflection technique," Appl. Opt. 29, 4276-4283 (1990).
  5. M. Commandré and P. Roche, "Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection," Appl. Opt. 35, 5021-5034 (1996).
  6. Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, and M. Koslowski, "Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings," Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
  7. V. Loriette and C. Boccara, "Absorption of low-loss optical materials measured at 1064 nm by a position-modulated collinear photothermal detection technique," Appl. Opt. 42, 649-656 (2003).
  8. A. During, C. Fossati, and M. Commandré, "Photothermal deflection microscopy for imaging submicronic defects in optical materials," Opt. Commun. 230, 279-286 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. W. Mundy, J. Ermshar, P. Hanson, and R. Hughes, "Photothermal deflection microscopy of HR and AR coatings," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, and B. E. Newman, eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 688, 360-371 (1983).
  10. A. Papandrew, C. Stolz, Z. Wu, G. Loomis, and S. Falabella, "Laser conditioning characterization and damage threshold prediction of hafnia/silica multilayer mirrors by photothermal microscopy," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 53-61 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. A. During, M. Commandré, C. Fossati, B. Bertussi, J. Y. Natoli, J. L. Rullier, H. Bercegol, and P. Bouchut, "Integrated photothermal microscope and laser damage test facility for in-situ investigation of nanodefect induced damage," Opt. Express 11, 2497-2501 (2003).
  12. D. Ristau, X. Dang, and J. Ebert, "Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, and B. E. Newman, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298-312 (1986).
  13. E. Welsh, H. Walther, R. Wolf, D. Schafer, and L. Wieczorek, "Measurement of optical losses and damage threshold of multilayer coatings," Thin Solid Films 117, 87-94 (1984). [CrossRef]
  14. E. Welsh, H. Walther, D. Schafer, and R. Wolf, "Measurement of optical losses and damage resistance of ZnS-Na3AlF6 and TiO2-SiO2 laser mirrors depending on coating design," Thin Solid Films 152, 433-442 (1987). [CrossRef]
  15. E. Welsh, H. Walther, D. Schafer, R. Wolf, and H. Muller, "Correlation between morphology, optical losses and laser damage of MgF2-SiO2 multilayers," Thin Solid Films 156, 1-10 (1988). [CrossRef]
  16. H. Walther, E. Welsh, and J. Opfermann, "Calculation and measurement of the absorption in multilayer films by means of photoacoustics," Thin Solid Films 142, 27-35 (1986).
  17. W. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, "Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection," Appl. Opt. 20, 1333-1344 (1981).
  18. M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, and A. C. Boccara, "Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces," Appl. Phys. 32, 141-154 (1983). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Zimmermann and E. Welsch, "Modeling of signal detection by using the photothermal probe beam deflection technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 97-101 (1994). [CrossRef]
  20. G. Rousset, F. Charbonnier, and F. Lepoutre, "Influence of radiative and convective transfers in a photothermal experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2093-2096 (1984). [CrossRef]
  21. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, 1986).
  22. D. Decker, L. Koshigoe, and E. Ashley, "Thermal properties of optical thin film materials," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1984, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, and B. E. Newman, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 291-297 (1986).
  23. D. Ristau and J. Ebert, "Development of a thermographic laser calorimeter," Appl. Opt. 25, 4571-4578 (1986).
  24. J. Lambropoulos, M. Jolly, C. Amsden, S. Gilman, M. Sinicropi, D. Diakomihalis, and S. Jacobs, "Thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4230-4242 (1989). [CrossRef]
  25. S. Lee, D. Cahill, and T. Allen, "Thermal conductivity of sputtered oxide films," Phys. Rev. B 52, 253-257 (1995). [CrossRef]
  26. E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantõme, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, "partn/partT measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters," Appl. Opt. 41, 3192-3136 (2002).
  27. L. Gallais, H. Hinsch, M.-L. Lay, and M. Commandré, "Photothermal facility for optical characterization of DUV materials," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. Angus Macleod, eds. Proc. SPIE 5250, 597-602 (2004). [CrossRef]
  28. L. Gallais and M. Commandré, "Simultaneous absorption, scattering, and luminescence mappings for the characterization of optical coatings and surfaces," Appl. Opt. (to be published).mc
  29. P. Torchio, A. Gatto, M. Alvisi, G. Albrand, N. Kaiser, and C. Amra, "High-reflectivity HfO2/SiO2 ultraviolet mirrors," Appl. Opt. 41, 3156-3261 (2002).
  30. S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, and I. Kovacs, "Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150-5153 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited