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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 44, Iss. 27 — Sep. 20, 2005
  • pp: 5809–5817

Simultaneous real-time imaging of surface and subsurface structures from a single space-frequency multiplexed photodisplacement interferogram

Toshihiko Nakata and Takanori Ninomiya  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 27, pp. 5809-5817 (2005)

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A new parallel photodisplacement technique has been developed that achieves simultaneous real-time imaging of surface and subsurface structures from a single space-frequency multiplexed interferogram, which greatly simplifies the system and the optical alignment. A linear region of photodisplacement is excited on the sample for subsurface imaging by use of a line-focused intensity-modulated laser beam, and the displacement and surface information on reflectivity and topography are detected by a parallel heterodyne interferometer with a charge-coupled device linear image sensor used as a detector. The frequencies of three control signals for excitation and detection, that is, the heterodyne beat signal, modulation signal, and sensor gate pulse, are optimized such that surface and subsurface information components are space-frequency multiplexed into the sensor signal as orthogonal functions, allowing each to be discretely reproduced from Fourier coefficients. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that this technique is capable of simultaneous imaging of reflectivity, topography, and photodisplacement for the detection of subsurface lattice defects at a remarkable speed of only 0.26 s per 256 × 256 pixel area. This new technique is promising for use in nondestructive hybrid surface and subsurface inspection and other applications.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.1520) Detectors : CCD, charge-coupled device
(040.2840) Detectors : Heterodyne
(070.6020) Fourier optics and signal processing : Continuous optical signal processing
(110.5120) Imaging systems : Photoacoustic imaging
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(350.5340) Other areas of optics : Photothermal effects

Original Manuscript: February 22, 2005
Revised Manuscript: April 22, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: April 23, 2005
Published: September 20, 2005

Toshihiko Nakata and Takanori Ninomiya, "Simultaneous real-time imaging of surface and subsurface structures from a single space-frequency multiplexed photodisplacement interferogram," Appl. Opt. 44, 5809-5817 (2005)

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