OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Glenn D. Boreman
  • Vol. 44, Iss. 29 — Oct. 10, 2005
  • pp: 6093–6107

Measurement system to determine the total and angle-resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions

Sven Schröder, Stefan Gliech, and Angela Duparré  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 29, pp. 6093-6107 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1815 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An instrumentation for total and angle-resolved scattering (ARS) at 193 and 157 nm has been developed at the Fraunhofer Institute in Jena to meet the severe requirements for scattering analysis of deep-and vacuum-ultraviolet optical components. Extremely low backscattering levels of 10−6 for the total scattering measurements and more than 9 orders of magnitude dynamic range for ARS have been accomplished. Examples of application extend from the control of at-wavelength scattering losses of superpolished substrates with rms roughness as small as 0.1 nm to the detection of volume material scattering and the study into the scattering of multilayer coatings. In addition, software programs were developed to model the roughness-induced light scattering of substrates and thin-film coatings.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.2170) General : Equipment and techniques
(120.5820) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Scattering measurements
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
(260.7190) Physical optics : Ultraviolet
(290.5820) Scattering : Scattering measurements
(310.1620) Thin films : Interference coatings

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: January 27, 2005
Revised Manuscript: May 27, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: June 8, 2005
Published: October 10, 2005

Sven Schröder, Stefan Gliech, and Angela Duparré, "Measurement system to determine the total and angle-resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions," Appl. Opt. 44, 6093-6107 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. Lammers, “Lithography gear switches for 65 nm,” (EE Times, 12July2004), http://www.eedesign.com .
  2. A. Hand, “Tricks with water and light: 193 nm extension” (Semiconductor International, 1February2004), http://www.reed-electronics.com/semiconductor .
  3. O. Apel, K. Mann, “DUV scattering measurements as a tool for characterization of UV-optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 72, 59–65 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Kadkhoda, A. Müller, D. Ristau, “Total scatter losses of optical components in the DUV/VUV spectral range,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 118–127 (2000).
  5. M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, K. Sone, S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, “Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. II. Reflectance, absorption, and scatter measurement,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3248–3255 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. M. Bloomstein, D. E. Hardy, L. Gomez, M. Rothschild, “Angle-resolved scattering measurements of polished surfaces and optical coatings at 157 nm,” in Optical Microlithography XVI, A. Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE5040, 742–752 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. “Standard test method for measuring the effective surface roughness of optical components by total integrated scattering,” (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1987).
  8. “Optics and optical instruments—test methods for radiation scattered by optical components,” ISO 13696:2002 (International Organization for Standardization, 2002).
  9. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed., Vol. PM24 of the SPIE Press Monographs (SPIE, 1995). [CrossRef]
  10. “Standard practice for angle resolved optical scatter measurements on specular diffuse surfaces,” ASTM E 1392-90 (American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990).
  11. “Guide for angle resolved optical scatter measurements on specular or diffuse surfaces,” (Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, 2005).
  12. A. Duparré, “Test method for angle resolved scatter measurements,” DIN NAFuO, AA O18 AK2 and ISO/TC 172/SC 9/WG 6, new work item discussion paper (2004).
  13. S. Gliech, J. Steinert, A. Duparré, “Light-scattering measurements of optical thin-film components at 157 and 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3224–3235 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.-F. Hochedez, P. Lemaire, J.-P. Delaboudinière, B. Cougrand, J. Barba, “Use of thinned backside illuminated CCDs from the extreme UV to the soft UV,” in Reconnaissance, Astronomy, Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, I. Hirschberg, ed., Proc. SPIE1070, 53 (1989). [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Falkenstein, “Surface cleaning mechanisms utilizing VUV radiation in oxygen-containing gaseous environments,” in Lithographic and Micromachining Techniques for Optical Component Fabrication, E.-B. Kley, H.-P. Herzig, eds., Proc. SPIE4440, 246–255 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Duparré, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, “Method and device for suppression of light absorption, light dispersion and contamination with wavelength below 200 nm,” European patentEP1423679 (2June2004).
  17. O. Kienzle, J. Staub, T. Tschudi, “Description of an integrated scatter instrument for measuring scatter losses of ‘superpolished’ optical surfaces,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 747–752 (1994). [CrossRef]
  18. “A guide integrating sphere theory and applications” (Labsphere, Inc., 2004), http://www.labsphere.com .
  19. S. Gliech, “Entwicklung und Anwendung eines Messsystems zur Bestimmung des totalen Streulichts von optischen und technisch rauhen Oberflächen und Schichten,” Doctoral thesis (Technical University Ilmenau, 2003).
  20. Hamamatsu, data sheet for photomultiplier tubes R7311 and R7511 (Hamamatsu Corp., 2004), http://usa.hamamatsu.com .
  21. C. Asmail, J. Hsia, A. Parr, J. Hoeft, “Rayleigh scattering limits for low-level bidirectional reflectance distribution function measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6084–6091 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. U. Griesmann, J. H. Burnett, “Refractivity of nitrogen gas in the vacuum ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1699–1701 (1999). [CrossRef]
  23. “A guide to reflectance coatings and materials” (Labsphere, Inc., 2004), http://www.labsphere.com .
  24. S. Schröder, “Untersuchungen zur Kalibrierung und Messung des Streulichts optischer Komponenten bei 193 nm und 157 nm,” Diploma thesis (Friedrich-Schiller-University, 2004).
  25. P. Bousquet, F. Flory, P. Roche, “Scattering from multilayer thin films: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115–1123 (1981). [CrossRef]
  26. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector scattering theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116–124 (1979). [CrossRef]
  27. A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt. 41, 154–171 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC Press, 1995), pp. 273–304.
  29. A. Duparré, “Scattering from surfaces and thin films,” in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, B. D. Guenther, D. G. Steel, L. Bayvel, eds. (Elsevier, 2004).
  30. A. Hultker, S. Gliech, H. Geßner, A. Duparré, “Characterization of CaF2substrates for VUV fluoride coatings,” in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, H. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE5250, 119–126 (2004). [CrossRef]
  31. D. Ristau, S. Güster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferré-Borull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. Tikhonravov, “Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3196–3204 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. E. Rudisill, A. Duparré, S. Schröder, “Determination of scattering losses in ArF excimer laser all-dielectric mirrors for 193 nm microlithography application,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, Ch. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE5647, 9–24 (2004).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited