OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: Glenn D. Boreman
  • Vol. 44, Iss. 30 — Oct. 20, 2005
  • pp: 6419–6425

Calibration of a Shack–Hartmann sensor for absolute measurements of wavefronts

Alexander Chernyshov, Uwe Sterr, Fritz Riehle, Jürgen Helmcke, and Johannes Pfund  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 30, pp. 6419-6425 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1053 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate a method with which to calibrate a Shack–Hartmann sensor for absolute wavefront measurement of collimated laser beams. Nearly perfect spherical wavefronts originating from a single-mode fiber were used as references. After the calibration, the uncertainty of the wavefront was less than λ/100 peak to valley across a diameter of 6 mm. For example, this method allowed us to balance aberrations and prepare collimated beams with wavefronts that are plane to λ/500 across 1 mm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.7350) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Wave-front sensing
(120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: October 4, 2004
Revised Manuscript: May 23, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: June 2, 2005
Published: October 20, 2005

Alexander Chernyshov, Uwe Sterr, Fritz Riehle, Jürgen Helmcke, and Johannes Pfund, "Calibration of a Shack–Hartmann sensor for absolute measurements of wavefronts," Appl. Opt. 44, 6419-6425 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. W. Milonni, “Resource letter AOA-1: adaptive optics for astronomy,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 476–485 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Mansell, J. Hennawi, E. K. Gustafson, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, D. Clubley, S. Yoshida, D. H. Reitze, “Evaluating the effect of transmissive optic thermal lensing on laser beam quality with a Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensor,” Appl. Opt. 40, 366–374 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Trebst, T. Binnewies, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, “Suppression of spurious phase shifts in an optical frequency standard,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 535–538 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Wilpers, C. Degenhardt, T. Binnewies, A. Chernyshov, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, U. Sterr, “Improvement of the fractional uncertainty of a neutral atom calcium optical frequency standard to 2 × 10−14,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 149–156 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Fils, F. Leduc, P. Bouyer, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, A. Clairon, A. Landragin, “Influence of optical aberrations in an atomic gyroscope,” Eur. J. Phys. D (to be published), and arXiv:physics/0507060.
  6. J. E. Greivenkamp, J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1991), Chap. 14, pp. 501–598.
  7. M. V. R. K. Murty, “The use of a single plane-parallel plate as a lateral shearing interferometer with a visible gas laser source,” Appl. Opt. 4, 531–534 (1964). [CrossRef]
  8. O. Bryngdahl, “Applications of shearing interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 37–83. [CrossRef]
  9. V. P. Linnik, “Simple interferometer for the investigation of optical systems,” C. R. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 208–210 (1933).
  10. R. N. Smartt, J. Strong, “Point-diffraction interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1972).
  11. R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, Suppl. 1–14, 351–357 (1975).
  12. J. Hardy, “Active optics: a new technology for the control of light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651–697 (1978). [CrossRef]
  13. V. Michau, G. Rousset, F. Mendez, B. Riou, “Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor for laser diode testing,” in Optical Space Communication, G. Otrio, ed., Proc. SPIE1131, 160–167 (1989). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Artzner, “On the absolute calibration of Shack–Hartmann sensors and UV laboratory wavefront measurements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 121–132 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. G. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “Shack–Hartmann wave-front measurement with a large f-number plastic microlens array,” Appl. Opt. 35, 188–192 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. A. Koch, R. W. Presta, R. A. Sacks, R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. J. Dailey, M. Feldman, A. A. Grey, F. R. Holdener, J. T. Salmon, L. G. Seppala, J. S. Toeppen, L. Van Atta, B. M. Van Wonterghem, W. T. Whistler, S. E. Winters, B. W. Woods, “Experimental comparison of a Shack–Hartmann sensor and a phase-shifting interferometer for large-optics metrology applications,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4540–4544 (2000). [CrossRef]
  17. J. D. Mansell, E. K. Gustafson, “Focal plane position detection with a diffractive optic for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor fabrication,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1074–1079 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Pfund, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, R. Burrow, T. Blümel, K.-E. Elsner, “Absolute sphericity measurement: a comparative study of the use of interferometry and a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Opt. Lett. 23, 742–744 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Pfund, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, “Misalignment effects of the Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Appl. Opt. 37, 22–27 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. G. Cao, X. Yu, “Accuracy analysis of a Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor operated with a faint object,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2331–2335 (1994). [CrossRef]
  21. H. Sickinger, O. Falkenstörfer, N. Lindlein, J. Schwider, “Characterization of microlenses using a phase-shifting shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2680–2686 (1994). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980).
  23. J. Ares, T. Mancebo, S. Bará, “Position and displacement sensing with Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensors,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1511–1520 (2000). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited