A compact frequency-modulated, continuous wave (FM-cw) lidar system for measurement of distributed aerosol plumes and hard targets is presented. The system is based on intensity modulation of a laser diode and quadrature detection of the return signals. The advantages of using laser diode amplitude modulation and quadrature detection is a large reduction in the hardware required for processing and storing return signals as well as the availability of off-the-shelf integrated electronic components from the wireless and telecommunication communities. Equations to invert the quadrature signal components and determine spatial distributions of multiple targets are derived. Spatial scattering intensities are used to extract aerosol backscatter coefficients, which can then be directly compared to microphysics aerosol models for environmental measurements. Finally, results from laboratory measurements with a monostatic FM-cw lidar system with both hard targets and aerosols are discussed.
© 2005 Optical Society of America
(010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar
(280.1100) Remote sensing and sensors : Aerosol detection
(290.5820) Scattering : Scattering measurements
(290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles
Marc L. Simpson, Meng-Dawn Cheng, Thang Q. Dam, Katey E. Lenox, Jeff R. Price, John M. Storey, Eric A. Wachter, and Walt G. Fisher, "Intensity-modulated, stepped frequency cw lidar for distributed aerosol and hard target measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 7210-7217 (2005)