OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Glenn D. Boreman
  • Vol. 44, Iss. 34 — Dec. 1, 2005
  • pp: 7414–7423

Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames

Silvana De Iuliis, Francesco Cignoli, and Giorgio Zizak  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 34, pp. 7414-7423 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.44.007414


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (416 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A two-color version of the laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique was implemented for measuring absolute soot volume fraction in flames. By using a calibrated tungsten ribbon lamp, soot peak temperatures were measured as a function of fluence at several locations in an ethylene diffusion flame by using a steeply edged laser beam profile. Above a certain fluence threshold, peak temperatures were tightly distributed just above 4000 K independent of the particle size and number density. Radial profiles of soot volume fraction were obtained and compared (not calibrated) with results from the laser extinction technique. Good agreement showed the validity of the 2C-LII technique at a controlled fluence.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.1740) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Combustion diagnostics
(280.1740) Remote sensing and sensors : Combustion diagnostics
(280.2470) Remote sensing and sensors : Flames
(300.2530) Spectroscopy : Fluorescence, laser-induced

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Citation
Silvana De Iuliis, Francesco Cignoli, and Giorgio Zizak, "Two-color laser-induced incandescence (2C-LII) technique for absolute soot volume fraction measurements in flames," Appl. Opt. 44, 7414-7423 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-34-7414


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. A. C. Eckbreth, "Effects of laser-modulated particulate incandescence on Raman-scattering diagnostics," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473-4479 (1977). [CrossRef]
  2. L. A. Melton, "Soot diagnostics based on laser heating," Appl. Opt. 23, 2201-2208 (1984).
  3. C. J. Dasch, "Continuous-wave probe-laser investigation of laser vaporization of small soot particles in a flame," Appl. Opt. 23, 2209-2215 (1984).
  4. J. E. Dec, A. O. zur Loye, and D. L. Siebers, "Soot distribution in a D. I. diesel engine using 2D laser-induced incandescence imaging," SAE paper 910224 (Society of Automotive Engineering, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).
  5. J. E. Dec, "Soot distribution in a D. I. diesel engine using 2D imaging of laser-induced incandescence, elastic scattering, and flame luminosity," SAE paper 920115 (Society of Automotive Engineering, Warrendale, Pa., 1992).
  6. N. P. Tait and D. A. Greenhalgh, "PLIF imaging of fuel fraction in practical devices and LII imaging of soot," Ber Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1619-1624 (1993).
  7. F. Cignoli, S. Benecchi, and G. Zizak, "Time-delayed detection of laser-induced incandescence for the two-dimensional visualization of soot in flames," Appl. Opt. 33, 5778-5782 (1994).
  8. R. L. Vander Wal, "LIF-LII measurements in a turbulent gas-jet flame," Exp. Fluids 23, 281-287 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. Hofeldt, "Real-time soot concentration measurement technique for engine exhaust streams," SAE paper 930079 (Society of Automotive Engineering, Warrendale, Pa. 1993).
  10. B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, "Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence," Combust. Flame 97, 384-392 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. R. L. Vander Wal and K. J. Weiland, "Laser-induced incandescence: development and characterization towards a measurement of soot volume fraction," Appl. Phys. B 59, 445-452 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. R. L. Vander Wal and D. L. Dietrich, "Laser-induced incandescence applied to droplet combustion," Appl. Opt. 34, 1103-1107 (1995).
  13. T. Ni, J. A. Pinson, S. Gupta, and R. J. Santoro, "Two-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction by the use of laser-induced incandescence," Appl. Opt. 34, 7083-7091 (1995).
  14. J. Appel, B. Jungfleisch, M. Marquardt, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, H., "Assessment of soot volume fraction from laser-induced incandescence by comparison with extinction measurements in laminar, premixed, flat flames," in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2387-2395.
  15. M. E. Case and D. L. Hofeldt, "Soot mass concentration measurements in diesel engine exhaust using laser-induced incendescence," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 25, 46-60 (1996).
  16. P. Roth and A. V. Filippov, "In situ ultrafine particle sizing by a combination of pulsed laser heatup and particle thermal emission," J. Aerosol Sci. 27, 95-104 (1996). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Will, S. Schraml, and A. Leipertz, "Comprehensive two-dimensional soot diagnostics based on laser-induced incandescence (LII)," in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2277-2284.
  18. B. Mewes and J. M. Seitzman, "Soot volume fraction and particle size measurements with laser-induced incandescence," Appl. Opt. 36, 709-717 (1997).
  19. D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, I. G. Campbell, J. E. Medlock, and O. L. Gulder, "Development and application of laser-induced incandescence (LII) as a diagnostic for soot particulate measurements," in Proceedings of the NATO/AGARD Propulsion and Energetics Panel, 90th Symposium on Advanced Nonintrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines, Brussels, Belgium, 20-24 October 1997.
  20. S. Will, S. Schraml, and A. Leipertz, "Two-dimensional soot-particle sizing by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence," Opt. Lett. 20, 2342-2344 (1995).
  21. S. Will, S. Schraml, K. Bader, and A. Leipetz, "Performance characteristics of soot primary particle size measurements by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence," Appl. Opt. 37, 5647-5658 (1998).
  22. H. Geitlinger, Th. Streibel, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, "Two-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction, particle number densities, and particle radii in laminar and turbulent diffusion flames," in Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 1613-1621.
  23. H. Geitlinger, Th. Steibel, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, "Statistical analysis of soot volume fractions, particle number densities, and particle radii in a turbulent diffusion flame," Combust. Sci. Technol. 149, 115-134 (1999).
  24. P.-E. Bengtsson and M. Aldén, "Soot-visualization strategies using laser techniques," Appl. Phys. B 60, 51-59 (1995). [CrossRef]
  25. R. L. Vander Wal, "Laser-induced incandescence: detection issues," Appl. Opt. 35, 6548-6559 (1996).
  26. B. Axelsson, R. Collin, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Laser-induced incandescence for soot particle size measurements in premixed flat flames," Appl. Opt. 39, 3683-3690 (2000).
  27. R. L. Vander Wal, M. Y. Choi, and K.-O. Lee, "The effects of rapid heating of soot: implications when using laser-induced incandescence for soot diagnostics," Combust. Flame 102, 200-2004 (1995). [CrossRef]
  28. R. L. Vander Wal and K. A. Jensen, "Laser-induced incandescence: excitation intensity," Appl. Opt. 37, 1607-1616 (1998).
  29. R. L. Vander Wal and M. Y. Choi, "Pulsed laser heating of soot: morphological changes," Carbon 37, 231-239 (1999). [CrossRef]
  30. C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996). [CrossRef]
  31. R. L. Vander Wal, Z. Zhou, and M. Y. Choi, "Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling," Combust. Flame 105, 462-470 (1996). [CrossRef]
  32. M. Y. Choi and K. A. Jensen, "Calibration and correction of laser-induced incandescence for soot volume fraction measurements," Combust. Flame 112, 485-491 (1998). [CrossRef]
  33. R. L. Vander Wal, "Calibration and comparison of laser-induced incandescence with cavity ring down," in Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 59-67.
  34. C. Moreau, J. F. Pauwels, P. Desgroux, and E. Therssen, "Particle size and soot volume fraction measurements in atmospheric diffusion flame by laser-induced incandescence combined with cavity ring-down spectroscopy," presented at the European Combustion Meeting, EMC 2003, Orleans, France, 25-28 October 2003.
  35. G. J. Smallwood, D. R. Snelling, F. Liu, and O. L. Gulder, "Clouds over soot evaporation: errors in modeling laser-induced incandescence of soot," Trans. ASME , J. Heat Transfer 123, 814-818 (2001). [CrossRef]
  36. H. A. Michelsen, "Understanding and predicting the temporal response of laser-induced incandescence from carbonaceous particles," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7012-7045 (2003). [CrossRef]
  37. D. R. Snelling, F. Liu, G. J. Smallwood, and O. L. Gulder, "Determination of the soot absorption function and thermal accomodation coefficient using low-fluence LII in a laminar coflow ethylene diffusion flame," Combust. Flame 136, 180-190 (2004). [CrossRef]
  38. M. Hofmann, W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, and H. Jander, "Laser-induced incandescence for soot diagnostics at high pressures," Appl. Opt. 42, 2052-2062 (2003).
  39. H. A. Michelsen, P. O. Witze, D. Kayes, and S. Hochgreb, "Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence of soot: the influence of experimental factors and microphysical mechanisms," Appl. Opt. 42, 557-5590 (2003).
  40. C. Crua, D. A. Kennaird, and M. R. Heikal, "Laser-induced incandescence study of diesel soot formation in a rapid compression machine at elevated pressures," Combust. Flame 135, 475-488 (2003). [CrossRef]
  41. R. Starke, B. Kock, P. Roth, A. Eremin, E. Gurentsov, V. Shumova, and V. Zoborov, "Shock wave induced carbon particle formation from CCL4 and C3O2 observed by laser extinction and by laser-induced incandescence (LII)," Combust. Flame 135, 77-85 (2003). [CrossRef]
  42. T. Lehere, H. Bockhorn, B. Jungfleisch, and R. Suntz, "Development of a measuring technique for simultaneous in situ detection of nanoscaled particle size distributions and gas temperatures," Chemosphere 51, 1055-1061 (2003). [CrossRef]
  43. S. Dankers and A. Leipertz, "Determination of primary particle size distributions from time- resolved laser-induced incandescence measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 3726-3731 (2004). [CrossRef]
  44. D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, F. Liu, and W. D. Bachalo, "A calibration-independent technique of measuring soot by laser-induced incandescence using absolute light intensity," presented at the Second Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, Oakland, Calif., 25-28 March 2001.
  45. G. J. Smallwood, D. R. Snelling, W. Stuart Neill, F. Liu, W. D. Bachalo, and O. L. Gulder, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of particulate matter emission in the exhaust of a Diesel engine," presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics, Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA), Nagoya, Japan, 1-4 July 2001.
  46. B. F. Kock and P. Roth, "Two-color TR-LII applied to in-cylinder diesel particle sizing," presented at The European Combustion Meeting, EMC 2003. Orleans: France, 25-28 October 2003.
  47. F. Cignoli, S. De Iuliis, V. Manta, and G. Zizak, "Two-dimensional two-wavelength emission technique for soot diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 40, 5370-5378 (2001).
  48. E. A. Rohlfing and D. W. Chandler, "Two-color pyrometric imaging of laser-heated carbon particles in a supersonic flow," Chem. Phys. Lett. 170, 44-50 (1990). [CrossRef]
  49. Y. Matsui, T. Kamimoto, and S. Matsuoka, "A study on the time- and space-resolved measurement of flame temperature and soot concentration in a D. I. diesel engine by the two-color method," SAE Tech. Paper 790491 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1979).
  50. Y. Matsui, T. Kamimoto, and S. Matsuoka, "A study on the application of the two-color method to the measurement of flame temperature and soot concentration in diesel engines," SAE paper 800970 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1980).
  51. X. H. Quoc, J.-M. Vignon, and M. Brun, "A new approach of the two-color method for determining local instantaneous soot concentration and temperature in a D. I. diesel combustion chamber," SAE Tech. Paper 910736 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).
  52. N. Ladommatos and H. Zhao, "A guide to measurement of flame temperature and soot concentration in diesel engines using the two-colour method. Part I: Principles," SAE Tech. Paper 941956 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994).
  53. S. di Stasio and P. Massoli, "Influence of the soot property uncertainties in temperature and volume-fraction measurements by two-colour pyrometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1453-1465 (1994). [CrossRef]
  54. S. De Iuliis, M. Barbini, S. Benecchi, F. Cignoli, and G. Zizak, "Determination of the soot volume fraction in an ethylene diffusion flame by multiwavelength analysis of soot radiation," Combust. Flame 115, 253-261 (1998). [CrossRef]
  55. W. Lee and Y. D. Na, "Soot study in laminar diffusion flames at elevated pressure using two-color pyrometry and Abel inversion," JSME Int. J. , Ser. B 43, 550-555 (2000).
  56. T. P. Jenkins and R. K. Hanson, "Soot pyrometry using modulated absorption/emission," Combust. Flame 126, 1669-1679 (2001). [CrossRef]
  57. R. G. Siddal and I. A. McGrath. "The emissivity of luminous flames," in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. 1962), pp. 102-110.
  58. P. J. Pagni and S. Bard, "Particulate volume fraction in diffusion flames," in Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1978), pp. 1017-1028.
  59. K. C. Smyth and C. R. Shaddix, "The elusive history of m = 1.57-0.56i for the refractive index of soot," Combust. Flame 107, 314-320 (1996). [CrossRef]
  60. M. Y. Choi, G. W. Mulholland, A. Hamins, and T. Kashiwagi, "Comparison of the soot volume fraction using gravimetric and light extinction techniques," Combust. Flame 102, 161-169 (1995). [CrossRef]
  61. S. S. Krishnan, K.-C. Lin, and G. M. Faeth, "Optical properties in the visible of overfire soot in large buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 122, 517-524 (2000). [CrossRef]
  62. H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 430, 57-591 (1990).
  63. F. Cignoli, S. De Iuliis, and G. Zizak, "A webcam as a light probe beam profiler," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1372-1375 (2004). [CrossRef]
  64. J. C. De Vos, "A new determination of the emissivity of tungsten ribbon," Physica (Amsterdam) 20, 690-714 (1954).
  65. R. M. Pon and J. P. Hessler, "Spectral emissivity of tungsten: analytical exspressions for the 340 nm to 2.6 micron spectral region," Appl. Opt. 23, 975-976 (1984).
  66. C. J. Dasch, "One-dimensional tomography: a comparison of Abel, onion peeling, and filtered backprojection methods," Appl. Opt. 31, 1146-152 (1992).
  67. D. R. Snelling, F. Liu, G. J. Smallwood, and O. L. Gulder, "Evaluation of the nanoscale heat and mass transfer model of LII: prediction of the excitation intensity," presented at the 34th National Heat Transfer Conference, Pittsburgh, Pa., 20-22 August 2000.
  68. P. O. Witze, S. Hochgreb, D. Kayes, H. A. Michelsen, and C. R. Shaddix, "Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence and elastic-scattering measurements in propane diffusion flame," Appl. Opt. 40, 2443-2453 (2001).
  69. S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced Incandescence (TIRE-LII)," Combust. Flame 120, 439-450 (2000). [CrossRef]
  70. D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, W. D. Bachalo, and S. Sankar, "Soot volume fraction characterization using the laser-induced incandescence detection method," Tenth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10-12 July 2000.
  71. R. J. Hall and P. A. Bonczyk, "Sooting flame thermometry using emission/absorption tomography," Appl. Opt. 29, 4590-4598 (1990).
  72. P. S. Greenberg and J. C. Ku, "Soot volume fraction imaging," Appl. Opt. 36, 5514-5522 (1997).
  73. D. R. Snelling, K. A. Thomson, G. J. Smallwood, and O. L. Gulder, "Two-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in laminar diffusion flames," Appl. Opt. 38, 2478-2485 (1999).
  74. D. R. Snelling, K. A. Thomson, G. J. Smallwood, O. L. Gulder, E. J. Weckman, and R. A. Fraser, "Spectrally resolved measurement of flame radiation to determine soot temperature and concentration," AIAA J. 40, 1789-1795 (2002).
  75. S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, S. Benecchi, and G. Zizak, "Determination of soot parameters by a two-angle scattering-extinction technique in an ethylene diffusion flame," Appl. Opt. 37, 7865-7874 (1998).
  76. S. De Iuliis, F. Cignoli, S. Benecchi, and G. Zizak, "Investigation of the similarity of soot parameters in ethylene diffusion flames with different heights by extinction/scattering technique," in Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998, pp. 1549-1555.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited