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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 44, Iss. 6 — Feb. 20, 2005
  • pp: 1084–1091

Trace detection of explosives with low vapor emissions by laser surface photofragmentation–fragment detection spectroscopy with an improved ionization probe

Jerry Cabalo and Rosario Sausa  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 6, pp. 1084-1091 (2005)

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Trace explosive residues are measured in real time by surface laser photofragmentation–fragment detection (SPF–FD) spectroscopy at ambient conditions. A 248-nm laser photofragments the target residue on a substrate, and a 226-nm laser ionizes the resulting NO fragment by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization by means of its AX (0, 0) transitions near 226 nm. We tested two probes on selected explosives and modeled their electric field in the presence of a substrate with an ion optics simulation program. The limits of detection range from 1 to 15 ng/cm2 (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) at 1 atm and 298 K and depend on the electrode orientation and mechanism for NO formation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3450) Lasers and laser optics : Laser-induced chemistry
(280.3420) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser sensors
(300.0300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy
(300.6360) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, laser
(300.6410) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, multiphoton

Original Manuscript: May 7, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: August 17, 2004
Published: February 20, 2005

Jerry Cabalo and Rosario Sausa, "Trace detection of explosives with low vapor emissions by laser surface photofragmentation–fragment detection spectroscopy with an improved ionization probe," Appl. Opt. 44, 1084-1091 (2005)

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