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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 44, Iss. 8 — Mar. 10, 2005
  • pp: 1464–1468

Directional variation of visual range due to anisotropic atmospheric brightness

Joseph P. Pichamuthu  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 8, pp. 1464-1468 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.44.001464


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Abstract

The meteorological optical range (MOR) is the greatest distance at which a nonluminous object is barely discernible. Koschmieder related the optical atmospheric extinction coefficient to the contrast between the object and its background. His law assumes a uniform atmosphere and yields an isotropic value of the MOR. The model presented here incorporates the effect of anisotropic atmospheric brightness on contrast (and thus on the MOR). The Koschmieder MOR is then decreased by a factor according to the brightness prevailing in the direction of assessment. Manual assessments of the MOR made in arbitrary directions are shown to agree satisfactorily with the derated MOR. Minor modifications to existing instruments at airports would enable the instruments to register true values of the MOR and the runway visual range in directions relevant to the pilot, i.e., along the runway.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1320) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric transmittance
(010.3920) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Meteorology

History
Original Manuscript: April 30, 2004
Revised Manuscript: October 1, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: October 22, 2004
Published: March 10, 2005

Citation
Joseph P. Pichamuthu, "Directional variation of visual range due to anisotropic atmospheric brightness," Appl. Opt. 44, 1464-1468 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-8-1464


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References

  1. W. E. K. Middleton, Vision through the Atmosphere (U. Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1952), Chap. 4, p. 62.
  2. H. R. Blackwell, “Contrast thresholds of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation, 5th ed., WMO document 8 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1983), Chaps. 10 and 16, pp. 10.1–10.15, 16.4–16.7.
  4. International Civil Aviation Organization, Manual of Runway Visual Range Observing and Reporting Practices, 2nd ed., document 9328-AN/908 (International Civil Aviation Organization, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2000).
  5. A. P. Ginsburg, Vision Sciences Research Corporation, San Ramon, Calif. (APGVSRC@aol.com) (personal communication, 2004).
  6. K. A. Kraus, R. E. d’Errico, D. Hazen, “The relationship between sky condition and visibility parameters,” in Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1993), p. 369.
  7. H. Leelavathi, S. N. Iyer, T. R. Kanakamuthu, G. A. Rao, S. S. Babu, J. P. Pichamuthu, The Automatic Visual Range Assessor, Project Doc. MT 9704 (National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore, India, 1997).
  8. J. P. Pichamuthu, The Regime Where the Koschmieder MOR Exceeds the Allard RVR, Project Doc. MT 0106 (National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore, India, 2001).

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