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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 44, Iss. 9 — Mar. 21, 2005
  • pp: 1601–1609

Controlled frustration of total internal reflection by electrophoresis of pigment particles

Michele A. Mossman and Lorne A. Whitehead  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 44, Issue 9, pp. 1601-1609 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.44.001601


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Abstract

A model based on geometrical optics has been developed to describe the photometric observations associated with a novel method to control the reflectance of a surface. In this new reflectance modulation approach, electrophoresis of pigment particles is used to absorb light reflected by total internal reflection (TIR). The pigment particles are sufficiently small that they substantially do not scatter light, but rather they modify the effective refractive index at the reflection interface. An incident light ray interacting with this modified effective index is attenuated in a spectrally selective manner. Although frustrated TIR has been understood and used in various applications for some time, in this case it is used to substantially modify the color of the reflected light, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported. A numerical model of the pigment particle distribution has been developed to describe the observations.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
(260.6970) Physical optics : Total internal reflection

Citation
Michele A. Mossman and Lorne A. Whitehead, "Controlled frustration of total internal reflection by electrophoresis of pigment particles," Appl. Opt. 44, 1601-1609 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-9-1601


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References

  1. L. A. Whitehead, M. A. Mossman, and A. Kotlicki, "Visual applications of total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures," Phys. Can. 57, 329-335 (2001).
  2. M. A. Mossman, V. H. Kwong, J. Pond, and L. A. Whitehead, "A high reflectance, wide viewing angle reflective display using total internal reflection in micro-hemispheres," in Proceedings of the 23rd International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 233-236.
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  7. L. A. Whitehead, "Method and apparatus for controllable frustration of total internal reflection," U.S. patent 5,999,307 (7 December 1999).
  8. R. J. N. Coope, L. A. Whitehead, and A. Kotlicki, "Modulation of retroreflection by controlled frustration of total internal reflection," Appl. Opt. 41, 5357-5361 (2002).
  9. L. A. Whitehead, D. N. Grandmaison, R. J. Coope, M. A. Mossman, and A. Kotlicki, "Electrophoretic, high index and phase transition control of total internal reflection in high efficiency variable reflective image display devices," U.S. patent 6,215,920 (10 April 2001).
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  14. S. Ross and I. Morrison, Colloidal Systems and Interfaces (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 252-254.
  15. M. A. Mossman, A. Kotlicki, L. A. Whitehead, R. W. Biernath, and S. P. Rao, "New reflective colour display technique based on total internal reflection and subtractive colour filtering," in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display Symposium (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1054-1057.
  16. L. A. Whitehead and M. A. Mossman, "Subtractive filtering frustrated TIR display," U.S. patent 6,384,979 (7 May 2002).
  17. C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

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