The design, fabrication, and characterization of large, two-dimensional multiple-quantum-well modulator arrays are presented. Such arrays present a speed advantage compared with competing technologies such as liquid crystals and micromirrors, which are intrinsically limited to the kilohertz range. We discuss the design compromises to reach high-contrast, low-voltage swing optical structures compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-based integrated circuits and present experimental results. Contrast ratio of 5:1 (limited by the fill factor), variations in uniformity below 1 nm, and frame rates in excess of 10 kHz are demonstrated. Technology maturity for volume production is also discussed.
© 2005 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: July 9, 2004
Revised Manuscript: November 22, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: November 22, 2004
Published: March 20, 2005
Stéphane Junique, Qin Wang, Susanne Almqvist, Jianhua Guo, Henk Martijn, Bertrand Noharet, and Jan Y. Andersson, "GaAs-based multiple-quantum-well spatial light modulators fabricated by a wafer-scale process," Appl. Opt. 44, 1635-1641 (2005)