OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2006
  • pp: 2615–2622

Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane for spatial light modulator applications utilizing GaAs substrates

Bahareh Haji-saeed, Rathna Kolluru, Dana Pyburn, Roberto Leon, Sandip K. Sengupta, Markus Testorf, William Goodhue, Jed Khoury, Alvin Drehman, Charles L. Woods, and John Kierstead  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 12, pp. 2615-2622 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1478 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The fabrication and characterization of an optically addressable deformable mirror for a spatial light modulator is described. Device operation utilizes an electrostatically driven pixellated aluminized polymeric membrane mirror supported above an optically controlled photoconductive GaAs substrate. A 5   μm thick grid of patterned photoresist supports the 2   μm thick aluminized Mylar membrane. A conductive ZnO layer is placed on the back side of the GaAs wafer. A standard Michelson interferometer is used to measure mirror deformation data as a function of illumination, applied voltage, and frequency. A simplified analysis of device operation is also presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices

Original Manuscript: June 25, 2004
Revised Manuscript: November 7, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: November 8, 2005

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Bahareh Haji-saeed, Rathna Kolluru, Dana Pyburn, Roberto Leon, Sandip K. Sengupta, Markus Testorf, William Goodhue, Jed Khoury, Alvin Drehman, Charles L. Woods, and John Kierstead, "Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane for spatial light modulator applications utilizing GaAs substrates," Appl. Opt. 45, 2615-2622 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. Warde, J. McCann, J. M. V. Shrauger, H. Ieong, A. Ersen, X. -Y. Wang, and J. Hubbard, " Membrane mirror light modulator technology," in Diffractive/Holographic Technologies and Spatial Light Modulators VII, I.Cindrich, S.Lee, and R.L.Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE 3951, 191- 199 (2000).
  2. C. Warde, J. E. Hubbard, Jr., G. Genetti, L. Lerman, and W. Loizides, " Membrane mirror light valve for high-definition projection display," in Electroluminescent Materials, Devices, and Large-Screen Displays, E. M. Conwell, M. Stolka, and M. R. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE 1910,270- 279 ( 1993).
  3. C. Warde and J. E. Hubbard, Jr., " Membrane-mirror-light-valve-based infrared scene projector," in Characterization and Propagation of Sources and Backgrounds, W.R.Watkins and D.Clement, eds., Proc. SPIE 2223, 544- 557 ( 1994).
  4. L. E. Somers, " The photoemitter membrane light modulator image transducer," in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, J. D. McGee, ed. (Academic, 1972), Vol. 33A, p. 493. [CrossRef]
  5. F. Reizman, " An optical spatial phase modulator array activated by optical signals," in Proceedings of the 1969 Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference (IEEE, 1969), pp. 225- 230.
  6. A. D. Fisher, L. C. Ling, J. N. Lee, and R. C. Fukuda, " Photoemitter membrane light modulator," Opt. Eng. 25, 261- 268 ( 1986).
  7. D. R. Pape, " Optically addressed membrane spatial light modulator," Opt. Eng. 24, 107- 110 ( 1985).
  8. K. Preston, Jr., " An array optical spatial phase modulator," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1968), p. 100.
  9. D. R. Pape and L. J. Hornbeck, " Characteristics of the deformable mirror device for optical information processing," Opt. Eng. 22, 675- 681 ( 1983).
  10. L. J. Hornbeck, Deformable-Mirror Spatial Light Modulators, Vol. ICR1150 of SPIE Critical Reviews (SPIE, 1989), pp. 86- 102.
  11. N. Clark, " A silicon eye using MEMS micromirrors," MRS Bull. 26(4), 320- 324 ( 2001).
  12. C. Quan, S. H. Wang, C. J. Tay, A. Q. Liu, and H. M. Shang, " Deformation measurement of a micro-rf capacitive switch membrane using laser interferometry," Opt. Eng. 42, 92- 97 ( 2003). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Khoury, C. L. Woods, B. Haji-Saeed, S. K. Sengupta, W. Goodhue, and J. Kierstead, " Theoretical modeling of the operational mechanism of a photoconductive MEMS spatial light modulator under ac and dc bias," in Optical Pattern Recognition XV, D.P.Casasent and T.-H.Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 5437, 288- 292 ( 2004).
  14. B. Haji-saeed, R. Kolluru, D. Pyburn, R. Leon, S. K. Sengupta, M. Testorf, W. Goodhue, J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, and J. Kierstead, " Photoconductive optically driven deformable membrane under high frequency bias: fabrication, characterization, and modeling," submitted to Appl. Opt.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited