OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2006
  • pp: 3077–3082

Inorganic immersion fluids for ultrahigh numericalaperture 193 nm lithography

Jianming Zhou, Yongfa Fan, Anatoly Bourov, and Bruce W. Smith  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 13, pp. 3077-3082 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.003077


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (812 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Immersion lithography has become attractive since it can reduce critical dimensions by increasing numerical aperture (NA) beyond unity. Among all the candidates for immersion fluids, those with higher refractive indices and low absorbance are desired. Characterization of the refractive indices and absorbance of various inorganic fluid candidates has been performed. To measure the refractive indices of these fluids, a prism deviation angle method was developed. Several candidates have been identified for 193   nm application with refractive indices near 1.55, which is approximately 0.1 higher than that of water at this wavelength. Cauchy parameters of these fluids were generated and approaches were investigated to tailor the fluid absorption edges to be close to 193   nm . The effects of these fluids on photoresist performance were also examined with 193   nm immersion lithography exposure at various NAs. Half-pitch 32   nm lines were obtained with phosphoric acid as the immersion medium at 1.5   NA . These fluids are potential candidates for immersion lithography technology.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: July 20, 2005
Revised Manuscript: October 4, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: October 6, 2005

Citation
Jianming Zhou, Yongfa Fan, Anatoly Bourov, and Bruce W. Smith, "Inorganic immersion fluids for ultrahigh numerical aperture 193 nm lithography," Appl. Opt. 45, 3077-3082 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-13-3077


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. S. Hibbs, "System overview of optical steppers and scanners," in Microlithography Science and Technology, J.R.Sheats and B.W.Smith, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 1998), pp. 1-108.
  2. B. W. Smith, A. Bourov, Y. Fan, L. Zavyalova, N. Lafferty, and F. Cropanese, "Approaching the numerical aperture of water immersion lithography at 193-nm," in Optical Microlithography XVII, B.W.Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5377, 273-284 (2004).
  3. S. Peng, R. H. French, W. Qiu, R. C. Wheland, M. Yang, M. F. Lemon, and M. K. Crawford, "Second generation fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B.W.Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 427-434 (2005).
  4. B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, and B. Ross, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B.W.Smith, ed. Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
  5. G. Gauglitz and D. Moore, "Nomenclature, symbols, units, and their usage in spectrochemical analysis-XII. Laser-based molecular spectrometer for chemical analysis: absorption," Pure Appl. Chem. 71, 2189-2204 (1999).
  6. M. J. Blandamer and M. F. Fox, "Theory and applications of charge-transfer-to-solvent Spectra," Chem. Rev. 70, 59-93 (1970). [CrossRef]
  7. R. Gupta, J. H. Burnett, U. Gnesmann, and M. Waihout, "Absolute refractive indices and thermal coefficients of fused silica and calcium fluoride near 193 nm," Appl. Opt. 37, 5964-5968 (1998).
  8. J. Burnett and S. Kaplan, "Measurement of refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient of water near 193 nm," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A.Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 1742-1749 (2003).
  9. H.-J. Eichler, "Dispersion and absorption of light," in Optics of Waves and Particles, H.Niedrig, ed. (de Gruyter, 1999), pp. 187-280.
  10. W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, "Deep-ultraviolet interferometric lithography as a tool for assessment of chemically amplified photoresist performance," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689-3694 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. T. A. Savas, S. N. Shah, M. L. Schattenburg, J. M. Carter, and H. I. Smith, "Achromatic interferometric lithography for 100-nm-period gratings and grids," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2732-2735 (1995). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Fan, A. Bourov, L. Zavyalova, J. Zhou, A. Estroff, N. Lafferty, and B. W. Smith, "ILSim, a compact simulation tool for interferometric lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B.W.Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 1805-1816 (2005).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited