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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2006
  • pp: 3077–3082

Inorganic immersion fluids for ultrahigh numericalaperture 193 nm lithography

Jianming Zhou, Yongfa Fan, Anatoly Bourov, and Bruce W. Smith  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 13, pp. 3077-3082 (2006)

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Immersion lithography has become attractive since it can reduce critical dimensions by increasing numerical aperture (NA) beyond unity. Among all the candidates for immersion fluids, those with higher refractive indices and low absorbance are desired. Characterization of the refractive indices and absorbance of various inorganic fluid candidates has been performed. To measure the refractive indices of these fluids, a prism deviation angle method was developed. Several candidates have been identified for 193   nm application with refractive indices near 1.55, which is approximately 0.1 higher than that of water at this wavelength. Cauchy parameters of these fluids were generated and approaches were investigated to tailor the fluid absorption edges to be close to 193   nm . The effects of these fluids on photoresist performance were also examined with 193   nm immersion lithography exposure at various NAs. Half-pitch 32   nm lines were obtained with phosphoric acid as the immersion medium at 1.5   NA . These fluids are potential candidates for immersion lithography technology.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: July 20, 2005
Revised Manuscript: October 4, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: October 6, 2005

Jianming Zhou, Yongfa Fan, Anatoly Bourov, and Bruce W. Smith, "Inorganic immersion fluids for ultrahigh numerical aperture 193 nm lithography," Appl. Opt. 45, 3077-3082 (2006)

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