OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 14 — May. 10, 2006
  • pp: 3218–3225

Three-wavelength electronic speckle pattern interferometry with the Fourier-transform method for simultaneous measurement of microstructure-scale deformations in three dimensions

Eric B. Flynn, Lori C. Bassman, Timothy P. Smith, Zamir Lalji, Laurel H. Fullerton, Tommy C. Leung, Scott R. Greenfield, and Aaron C. Koskelo  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 14, pp. 3218-3225 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1528 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present the simultaneous measurement of three-dimensional deformations by electronic speckle pattern interferometry using five object beams and three colors. Each color, corresponding to an orthogonal direction of displacement, is separated through dichroic filtering before being recorded by a separate CCD camera. Carrier fringes are introduced by tilting the beam path in one arm of each of the three interferometers. The measured deformation modulates these carrier fringes and is extracted using the Fourier-transform method to achieve high displacement sensitivity. The field of view is on the order of a millimeter, making the system suitable for study of microstructural deformations. We compare experimental results with calculated values to validate out-of-plane and in-plane deformation measurements and demonstrate sensitivity on the order of 10   nm .

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.2650) Image processing : Fringe analysis
(120.4290) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Nondestructive testing
(120.6160) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Speckle interferometry

Original Manuscript: August 22, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: October 11, 2005

Eric B. Flynn, Lori C. Bassman, Timothy P. Smith, Zamir Lalji, Laurel H. Fullerton, Tommy C. Leung, Scott R. Greenfield, and Aaron C. Koskelo, "Three-wavelength electronic speckle pattern interferometry with the Fourier-transform method for simultaneous measurement of microstructure-scale deformations in three dimensions," Appl. Opt. 45, 3218-3225 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. L. Cloud, Optical Methods of Engineering Analysis (Cambridge U. Press, 1995). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry (Cambridge U. Press, 1989).
  3. K. Creath, "Phase-shifting speckle interferometry," Appl. Opt. 24, 3053-3058 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, "Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156-160 (1982). [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Moore and C. Pérez-López, "Fringe carrier methods in double-pulsed addition ESPI," Opt. Commun. 141, 203-212 (1997). [CrossRef]
  6. D. I. Farrant, G. H. Kaufmann, J. N. Petzing, J. R. Tyrer, B. F. Oreb, and D. Kerr, "Measurement of transient deformations with dual-pulse addition electronic speckle-pattern interferometry," Appl. Opt. 37, 7259-7267 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Fernández, J. Blanco-García, A. F. Doval, J. Bugarín, B. V. Dorrío, C. López, J. M. Alén, M. Pérez-Amor, and J. L. Fernández, "Transient deformation measurement by double-pulsed-subtraction TV holography and the Fourier transform method," Appl. Opt. 37, 3440-3446 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Winther, "3D strain measurements using ESPI," Opt. Lasers Eng. 8, 45-57 (1988). [CrossRef]
  9. L. S. Wang, K. Jambunathan, B. N. Dobbins, and S. P. He, "Measurement of three-dimensional surface shape and deformations using phase stepping speckle interferometry," Opt. Eng. 35, 2333-2340 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Martínez, J. A. Rayas, R. Rodríguez-Vera, and H. J. Puga, "Three-dimensional deformation measurement from the combination of in-plane and out-of-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometers," Appl. Opt. 43, 4652-4658 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, "Double-pulse electronic speckle interferometry for vibration analysis," Appl. Opt. 33, 7857-7863 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. J. Moore and J. R. Tyrer, "An electronic speckle pattern interferometer for complete in-plane displacement measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 1024-1030 (1990). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Takatsuji, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, and P. S. Fairman, "Simultaneous measurement of vector components of displacements by ESPI and FFT techniques," in Interferometry VII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, and M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE 2544, 309-316 (1995).
  14. T. Takatsuji, B. F. Oreb, I. Farrant, and J. R. Tyrer, "Simultaneous measurement of three orthogonal components of displacement by electronic speckle-pattern interferometry and the Fourier transform method," Appl. Opt. 36, 1438-1445 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).
  16. J. B. Hurtado-Ramos, J. Blanco-García, A. Fernández, and F. Ribas, "An ESPI system for determining in-plane deformations. Three-dimensional analysis of the carrier fringes and a proposal for analysis of transient in-plane deformations," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 644-651 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Yoshimura, M. Zhou, K. Yamahai, and Z. Liyan, "Optimum determination of speckle size to be used in electronic speckle pattern interferometry," Appl. Opt. 34, 87-91 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Arai and S. Yokozeki, "Electronic speckle pattern interferometry based on spatial fringe analysis method," in Optical Measurement Systems for Industrial Inspection II: Application in Industrial Design, W.Osten, W.P. O.Jueptner, and M.Kujawinska, eds., Proc. SPIE 4398, 14-22 (2001).
  19. C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, "Speckle interferometry with temporal phase evaluation for measuring large-object deformation," Appl. Opt. 37, 2608-2614 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited