OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 17 — Jun. 10, 2006
  • pp: 4054–4061

Transfer function and near-field detection of evanescent waves

Ilya P. Radko, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi, and Niels Gregersen  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 17, pp. 4054-4061 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (873 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We consider characterization of a near-field optical probe in terms of detection efficiency of different spatial frequencies associated with propagating and evanescent field components. The former are both detected with and radiated from an etched single-mode fiber tip, showing reciprocity of collection and illumination modes. Making use of a collection near-field microscope with a similar fiber tip illuminated by an evanescent field, we measure the collected power as a function of the field spatial frequency in different polarization configurations. Considering a two-dimensional probe configuration, numerical simulations of detection efficiency based on the eigenmode expansion technique are carried out for different tip apex angles. The detection roll-off for high spatial frequencies observed in the experiment and obtained during the simulations is fitted using a simple expression for the transfer function, which is derived by introducing an effective point of (dipolelike) detection inside the probe tip. It is found to be possible to fit reasonably well both the experimental and the simulation data for evanescent field components, implying that the developed approximation of the near-field transfer function can serve as a simple, rational, and sufficiently reliable means of fiber probe characterization.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
(110.4850) Imaging systems : Optical transfer functions
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy

Original Manuscript: August 3, 2005
Revised Manuscript: December 29, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: January 9, 2006

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Ilya P. Radko, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi, and Niels Gregersen, "Transfer function and near-field detection of evanescent waves," Appl. Opt. 45, 4054-4061 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  2. J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope," Opt. Commun. 126, 285-292 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. D. P. Tsai, Z. Wang, and M. Moskovits, "Estimating the effective optical aperture of a tapered fiber probe in PSTM imaging," in Scanning Probe Microscopies II, C.C.Williams, ed., Proc. SPIE 1855,93-104 (1993).
  4. A. J. Meixner, M. A. Bopp, and G. Tarrack, "Direct measurement of standing evanescent waves with a photon-scanning tunneling microscope," Appl. Opt. 33, 7995-8000 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, "Probes for scanning tunneling optical microscopy: a theoretical comparison," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2193-2201 (1993). [CrossRef]
  6. R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, "2-Dimensional numerical-simulation of the photon scanning tunneling microscope--concept of transfer-function," Opt. Commun. 116, 316-321 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Coello, "Elastic scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: modeling and experiment," Phys. Rev. B 58, 10899-10910 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, and J. T. Boyd, "Near-field measurements of optical channel wave-guides and directional-couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947-949 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, "Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035-1037 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, and S. Berntsen, "Self-consistent model for photon scanning tunneling microscopy: implications for image formation and light scattering near a phase-conjugating mirror," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2381-2392 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Optical characterization of probes for photon scanning tunnelling microscopy," J. Microsc. (Oxford) 194, 311-316 (1999). [CrossRef]
  14. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, "Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 172, 171-179 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997). [CrossRef]
  16. L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and P. Regli, "Light propagation through nanometer-sized structures: the two-dimensional-aperture scanning near-field optical microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1768-1779 (1994). [CrossRef]
  17. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, and H. Heinzelmann, "Influence of detection conditions on near-field optical imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5873-5882 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327-341 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. N. Gregersen, B. Tromborg, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and J. Holm, "Topography characterization of a deep grating using near-field imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 117-121 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, "Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441-11448 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, "Measuring amplitude and phase distribution of fields generated by gratings with sub-wavelength resolution," Opt. Commun. 205, 229-238 (2002). [CrossRef]
  22. T. Grosjean and D. Courjon, "Polarization filtering induced by imaging systems: effect on image structure," Phys. Rev. E 67, 046611 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Localization phenomena in elastic surface-polariton scattering caused by surface roughness," Phys. Rev. B 54, 8177-8185 (1996). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited