OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 17 — Jun. 10, 2006
  • pp: 4142–4146

Space interferometry application of laser frequency stabilization with molecular iodine

Volker Leonhardt and Jordan B. Camp  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 17, pp. 4142-4146 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (696 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A number of planned space interferometry missions, including the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave detector, require a laser system with high-frequency stability over long time scales. A 1064   nm wavelength nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) laser stabilized to a resonant transition in molecular iodine is suitable for these missions, providing high-frequency stability at an absolute reference frequency. The iodine stabilized laser also offers low sensitivity to temperature and alignment fluctuations and allows frequency tuning. We have evaluated the noise performance of a NPRO laser stabilized to iodine using frequency modulation spectroscopy and have found an Allan standard deviation of 10 14 over 100 s. Simplified optical configurations and the radiation hardness of the frequency-doubling crystals have also been investigated.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(300.6380) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, modulation
(350.6090) Other areas of optics : Space optics

Original Manuscript: October 17, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: November 11, 2005

Volker Leonhardt and Jordan B. Camp, "Space interferometry application of laser frequency stabilization with molecular iodine," Appl. Opt. 45, 4142-4146 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. K. Danzmann, "LISA mission overview," Adv. Space Res. 25, 1129-1136 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. W. Cash, "X-ray interferometry," Exp. Astron. 16, 91-139 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. S. B. Shaklan, L. Marchen, J. J. Green, and O. P. Lay, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph dynamics error budget," in Proc. SPIE 5905, 110-121 (2005).
  5. T. T. Hyde, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 590, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (internal communication, September 2005).
  6. M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, "Short and long term stability of optical oscillators," in Proceedings of the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1992), pp. 44-55. [CrossRef]
  7. J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, "Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. G. Galzerano, C. Svelto, E. Bava, and F. Bertinetto, "High-frequency-stability diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with the FM sidebands method and Doppler-free iodine lines at 532 nm," Appl. Opt. 38, 6962-6966 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Picard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. E. Ahola, P. Balling, P. Kren, and J. P. Wallerand, "Comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures," Appl. Opt. 42, 1019-1028 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. G. Müller, P. McNamara, I. Thorpe, and J. Camp, "Laser frequency stabilization for LISA," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212790 (2005).
  13. J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Optical phase locking in the microradian domain: potential applications to NASA spaceborne optical measurements," Opt. Lett. 24, 1838-1840 (1999). [CrossRef]
  14. U. Roth, M. Tröbs, T. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, "Proton and gamma radiation tests on nonlinear crystals," Appl. Opt. 41, 464-469 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. L. Barth, M. Xapsos, and C. Poivey, "The radiation environment for the LISA/Laser Interferometry Space Antenna," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212791 (2005).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited