OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2006
  • pp: 4254–4262

Analytical design method for a modified Schwarzschild optics

Antonio Budano, Francesco Flora, and Luca Mezi  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 18, pp. 4254-4262 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (925 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An innovative solution for the Schwarzschild optic, based on a modification of the position of the object, is proposed. This solution allows one to reach a larger numerical aperture and hence a better resolution compared with the standard configuration of the Schwarzschild optics. Furthermore, we propose an analytical solution that allows the optical system to be designed without the need of any ray-tracing software.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: October 10, 2005
Revised Manuscript: February 8, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: February 12, 2006

Antonio Budano, Francesco Flora, and Luca Mezi, "Analytical design method for a modified Schwarzschild optics," Appl. Opt. 45, 4254-4262 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. Attwood, Soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation, 1st ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2000).
  2. R. E. Gleason, "How far will circuits shrink," Sci. Spectra 20,32-40 (2000).
  3. K. Diefendorff, "Extreme lithography," Microdesign Resources Microprocessor Rep. (June 2000), pp. 1-10, www.MPRonline.com.
  4. I. A. Artioukov and K. M. Krymski, "Schwarzschild objective for soft x-ray," Opt. Eng. 39, 2163-2170 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Korsch, Reflective Optics (Academic, 1991).
  6. H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, and Y. Torii, "Soft x-ray reduction lithography using multilayer mirrors," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648-1651 (1989). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Singh, H. Solak, and F. Cerrina, "Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1-8 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Hawryluk and L. G. Seppala, "Soft x-ray projection lithography using an x-ray reduction camera," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 2162-2166 (1988). [CrossRef]
  9. I. A. Artioukov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Yulin, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Soft x-ray submicron imaging experiments with nanosecond exposure," Opt. Commun. 102, 401-406 (1993). [CrossRef]
  10. I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, V. E. Asadchikov, Yu. S. Kas'yanov, R. V. Serov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, and S. A. Yulin, "Schwarzschild soft-x-ray microscope for imaging of nonradiating objects," Opt. Lett. 20, 2451-2453 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. L. Shealy, R. B. Hoover, T. W. Barbee, and A. B. C. Walker, "Design and analysis of a Schwarzschild imaging multilayer x-ray microscope," Opt. Eng. 29, 721-727 (1990). [CrossRef]
  12. D. L. Shealy, C. Wang, J. Wu, and R. B. Hoover, "Design and analysis of soft x-ray imaging microscopes," in Proc. SPIE 1546,117-124 (1991).
  13. D. L. Shealy, C. Wang, and R. B. Hoover, "Optical analysis of an ultra-high resolution two-mirror soft x-ray microscopy," J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 5, 1-19 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. I. A. Artioukov, X-ray Optics Group, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospekt 53, Moscow B-333, 117924, Russia; iart@sci.lebedev.ru (personal communication, 2004).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited