OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2006
  • pp: 4303–4309

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of thin TiO2 films cosputtered with Al

Jin-Cherng Hsu, Paul W. Wang, and Cheng-Chung Lee  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 18, pp. 4303-4309 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.004303


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (298 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

In this study, titanium dioxide ( TiO 2 ) films were fabricated by cosputtering of a titanium (Ti) target and an aluminum (Al) slice in a smaller area by an ion-beam sputtering deposition method. The sputtered films were postannealed at 450 ° C . The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra were categorized by their oxygen bonding variations, which include high-binding-energy oxygen, (HBO), bridging oxygen, low-binding-energy oxygen, and shifts of the binding energies (BEs) of oxygen (O) and Ti signals. The enhancement of HBO and higher BE shifts of the O 1s spectra as a function of cosputtered Al in the film imply the formation of an Al—O—Ti linkage. Corresponding changes in the Ti 2p spectra further confirm the modification of properties of the cosputtered film that results from the variation of the chemical bonding environment. An observed correlation between the chemical structure and optical absorption of the Al cosputtered films can be used to modify the optical properties of the film.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(310.1620) Thin films : Interference coatings
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(310.6870) Thin films : Thin films, other properties

ToC Category:
Thin Films

History
Original Manuscript: December 12, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: January 20, 2006

Citation
Jin-Cherng Hsu, Paul W. Wang, and Cheng-Chung Lee, "X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of thin TiO2 films cosputtered with Al," Appl. Opt. 45, 4303-4309 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-18-4303


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgagno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schnell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, and A. Saxer, "Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques," Appl. Opt. 28, 3303-3317 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Chow, M. Runkel, and J. R. Taylor, "Laser damage testing of small optics for the national ignition facility," Appl. Opt. 44, 2327-3531 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Kozlowski, "Damage-resistant laser coating," in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 521-549.
  4. D. T. Wei, "Ion beam interference coating for ultralow optical loss," Appl. Opt. 28, 2813-2816 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Kalb, "Neutral ion beam sputter deposition of high-quality optical film," Opt. News 12(8), 13-17 (1986). [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, and D. B. Kerwin, "Ion-beam sputter deposition of oxide films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985). [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Hsu and C. C. Lee, "Single- and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition of titanium oxide films," Appl. Opt. 37, 1171-1176 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakam, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titanium films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, "Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation," Thin Solid Film 251, 72-79 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. P. Kofstad, "Thermogravimetric studies of the defect structure of rutile (TiO2)," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 1579-1586 (1962). [CrossRef]
  11. N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, J. Heuer, J. Denatale, and W. J. Gunning, "Microstructure and composition of composite SiO2/TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3037-3045 (1991). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical thin films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969-2974 (1986). [CrossRef]
  13. B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "Stress reduction in ion beam sputtered mixed oxide film," Appl. Opt. 28, 2800-2805 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Rabady and I. Avrutsky, "Titania, silicon dioxide, and tantalum pentoxide waveguides and optical resonant filters prepared with radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and annealing," Appl. Opt. 44, 378-383 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Demiryont, "Optical properties of SiO2-TiO2 composite films," Appl. Opt. 24, 2647-2650 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. McCafferty and J. P. Wightman: "An x-ray spectroscopy sputter profile study of the native air-formed oxide film on titanium," Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 92-100 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. C. Wagner, W. Riggs, L. Davis, J. Moulder, and G. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer, 1979), pp. 66 and 124.
  18. R. D. Shannon, "Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides," Acta Crystallogr. A 32, 751-767 (1976). [CrossRef]
  19. R. N. Castellano, M. R. Notis, and G. W. Simmons, "Composition and stress state of thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering," Vacuum 27, 109-117 (1977). [CrossRef]
  20. D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, 1991).
  21. W. H. Wang and S. Chao, "Annealing effect on ion-beam-sputtered titanium dioxide film," Opt. Lett. 23, 1417-1419 (1998). [CrossRef]
  22. K. E. McCarty and N. C. Bartelt, "Role of bulk thermal defects in the reconstruction dynamics of the TiO2 (110) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 461041 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. L. Griscom and E. J. Friebele, "Fundamental defect centers in glass: 29Si hyperfine structure of the nonbridging oxygen hole center and the peroxy radical in a-SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 24, 4896-4898 (1981). [CrossRef]
  24. D. L. Griscom, "Self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide," Phys. Rev. B 40, 4224-4227 (1989). [CrossRef]
  25. P. W. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Tao, and C. Wang, "Thermal behavior of silver in ion-exchanged soda lime glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 2285-2293 (1997). [CrossRef]
  26. R. S. Berry, "Small free negative ions," Chem. Rev. 69, 533-542 (1969). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Jobin, M. Taborelli, and P. Descouts, "Structural characterization of oxidized titanium surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5149-5155 (1995). [CrossRef]
  28. K. Cai, M. Müller, J. Bossert, A. Rechtenbach, and K. D. Jandt, "Surface structure and composition of flat titanium thin films as a function of film thickness and evaporation rate," Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 252-267 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited