OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2006
  • pp: 4355–4365

2 Gbit∕s 0.5 μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor optical transceiver with event-driven dynamic power-on capability

Xingle Wang, Fouad Kiamilev, Ping Gui, Xiaoqing Wang, Jeremy Ekman, Yongrong Zuo, Jason Blankenberg, and Michael Haney  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 18, pp. 4355-4365 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.004355


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1499 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A 2 Gb / s 0.5   μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor optical transceiver designed for board- or backplane level power-efficient interconnections is presented. The transceiver supports optical wake-on-link (OWL), an event-driven dynamic power-on technique. Depending on external events, the transceiver resides in either the active mode or the sleep mode and switches accordingly. The active-to-sleep transition shuts off the normal, gigabit link and turns on dedicated circuits to establish a low-power ( 1 .8   mW ) , low data rate (less than 100 Mbits / s ) link. In contrast the normal, gigabit link consumes over 100 mW. Similarly the sleep-to-active transition shuts off the low-power link and turns on the normal, gigabit link. The low-power link, sharing the same optical channel with the normal, gigabit link, is used to achieve transmitter∕receiver pair power-on synchronization and greatly reduces the power consumption of the transceiver. A free-space optical platform was built to evaluate the transceiver performance. The experiment successfully demonstrated the event-driven dynamic power-on operation. To our knowledge, this is the first time a dynamic power-on scheme has been implemented for optical interconnects. The areas of the circuits that implement the low-power link are approximately one-tenth of the areas of the gigabit link circuits.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(250.3140) Optoelectronics : Integrated optoelectronic circuits
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: June 13, 2005
Revised Manuscript: November 21, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: February 24, 2006

Citation
Xingle Wang, Fouad Kiamilev, Ping Gui, Xiaoqing Wang, Jeremy Ekman, Yongrong Zuo, Jason Blankenberg, and Michael Haney, "2 Gbit/s 0.5 μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor optical transceiver with event-driven dynamic power-on capability," Appl. Opt. 45, 4355-4365 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-18-4355


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. B. Hawkins and B. Hawthorne, "2.5Gbps oxide isolated VCSEL reliability report"; http://www.adopco.com/publication/documents/2.5GbpsOxideIsolatedVCSELReliabilityReport.pdf (20 May 2003)
  2. Ulm Photonics VCSEL Fab, Ulm, Germany, "VCSEL output power measured at room temperature as a function of actual stress hours"; http://www.semiconductor-technology.com/projects/ulm_photonics/ulml_photonics5.html (2004).
  3. C. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, and L. A. Coldren, "Fabrication and performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Design, Fabrication, Characterization and Applications (Cambridge University, 1999), pp. 193-225.
  4. B. Krzyzanowski, J. Guenter, and J. Tatum, "VCSEL Spice model"; http://www.adopco.com/publication/documents/VCSELSpiceModel.pdf (1998).
  5. D. Genossar and N. Shamir, "Intel Pentium M processor power estimation, budgeting, optimization, and validation," Intel Technol. J. 7(2), 44-49 (2003).
  6. S. Gochman, R. Ronen, I. Anati, A. Berkovits, T. Kurts, A. Naveh, A. Saeed, Z. Sperber, and R. C. Valentine, "The Intel Pentium M processor: microarchitecture and performance," Intel Technol. J. 7(2), 21-36 (2003).
  7. X. Wang, F. Kiamilev, G. Papen, J. Ekman, P. Gui, M. McFadden, J. Deroba, M. Haney, and C. Kuznia, "Performance-based power optimization for digital optical interconnection," Appl. Opt. 44, 6240-6252 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. IEEE802.11 Standards, "Wireless LAN medium access control and physical layer specifications, 1999"; http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.11-1999.pdf.
  9. C. Hu and J. Hou, "LISP: a link-indexed statistical traffic prediction approach to improving IEEE 802.11 PSM," in IEEE Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (IEEE, 2004), pp. 292-300. [CrossRef]
  10. S. Takeuchi, K. Yamazaki, K. Sezaki, and Y. Yasuda, "An improved power saving mechanism for MAC protocol in ad hoc networks," IEEE GLOBECOM 2004 (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 5, pp. 2791-2796.
  11. C. F. Chiasserini and R. Rao, "Combining paging with dynamic power management," in IEEE INFOCOM 2001 (IEEE, 2002), pp. 12-19.
  12. E. Shih, P. Bahl, and M. Sinclair, "Wake on wireless: an event-driven energy saving strategy for battery-operated devices," in ACM/IEEE Proceedings of the Eighth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (IEEE, 2002), pp. 160-171. [CrossRef]
  13. X. Wang, F. Kiamilev, and P. Gui, "Current-bleeding fast power-on for VCSEL-based gigabit optical transceivers," in IEEE/LEOS 2004 Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 314-315.
  14. C. Su, L. K. Chen, and K. W. Cheung, "Theory of burst-mode receiver and its applications in optical multiaccess networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 590-606 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Ota, R. Swartz, V. Archer, S. Korotky, M. Banu, and A. Dunlop, "High-speed, burst-mode, packet-capable optical receiver and instantaneous clock recovery for optical bus operation," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 325-331 (1994). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Banu and A. E. Dunlop, "Clock recovery circuits with instantaneous locking," Electron. Lett. 28, 2127-2130 (1992). [CrossRef]
  17. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, "Delay models in data networks," in Data Networks (Prentice-Hall, 1992), pp. 149-270.
  18. P. Gui, F. Kiamilev, X. Wang, X. Wang, M. McFadden, M. Haney, and C. Kuznia, "A 2Gbps 0.5μm CMOS parallel optical transceiver with fast power-on capability," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2135-2148 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. R. G. Hunsperger, "Direct modulation of semiconductor lasers," in Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology, 5th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2002), pp. 281-296.
  20. Peregrine Semiconductor SoS CMOS Foundry Service; http://www.peregrine-semi.com/ (2002).
  21. Xilinx, Inc., "Virtex-II Pro(tm) platform FPGA user guide," Document UG012; http://www.xilinx.com/bvdocs/userguides/ug012.pdf (19 April 2004).
  22. Xilinx, Inc., "RocketIO(tm) transceiver user guide," Document UG024; http://www.xilinx.com/bvdocs/userguides/ug024.pdf (24 February 2004).
  23. Xilinx, Inc., "Aurora protocol specification," Document SP002; http://www.xilinx.com/ (20 October 2003)
  24. Emcore Corporation, "1 × 4 VCSEL array 2.7-3.6Gb/s, 8685-1402," and "1 × 4 GaAs PIN photodiode array model 8485-1406"; http://www.emcore.com/ (2004).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited