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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 20 — Jul. 10, 2006
  • pp: 4833–4842

Surface roughness of stainless-steel mirrors for focusing soft x rays

Valeriy V. Yashchuk, Eric M. Gullikson, Malcolm R. Howells, Steve C. Irick, Alastair A. MacDowell, Wayne R. McKinney, Farhad Salmassi, Tony Warwick, James P. Metz, and Thomas W. Tonnessen  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 20, pp. 4833-4842 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.004833


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Abstract

We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x rays in grazing-incidence reflection. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface, polished and coated with gold, is discussed in detail. A comparison is made to a polished, gold-coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. We used the surface height distributions, measured with an interferometric microscope and complemented by atomic-force microscope measurements, to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity were verified by soft-x-ray measurements.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.6660) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Surface measurements, roughness
(220.4880) Optical design and fabrication : Optomechanics
(220.5450) Optical design and fabrication : Polishing
(240.5770) Optics at surfaces : Roughness
(340.7470) X-ray optics : X-ray mirrors

History
Original Manuscript: October 19, 2005
Revised Manuscript: January 26, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: January 30, 2006

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 8 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Valeriy V. Yashchuk, Eric M. Gullikson, Malcolm R. Howells, Steve C. Irick, Alastair A. MacDowell, Wayne R. McKinney, Farhad Salmassi, Tony Warwick, James P. Metz, and Thomas W. Tonnessen, "Surface roughness of stainless-steel mirrors for focusing soft x rays," Appl. Opt. 45, 4833-4842 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-20-4833


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