OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 2006
  • pp: 6113–6118

Design and demonstration of direct UV-written small angle X couplers in silica-on-silicon for broadband operation

Faisal R. M. Adikan, Corin B. E. Gawith, Peter G. R. Smith, Ian J. G. Sparrow, Gregory D. Emmerson, Christos Riziotis, and Harith Ahmad  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 24, pp. 6113-6118 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.006113


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (978 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Experimental demonstration of small angle ( 0.8 °– 5 ° ) direct UV-written X couplers in silica-on-silicon is presented. Maximum and minimum coupling ratios of 95 % ( ± 0.8 % ) and 1.9 % ( ± 1 % ) , respectively, were recorded. The structures also display very low polarization and wavelength dependence. A typical excess loss of 1.0 dB ( ± 0.5 dB ) was recorded. Device modeling using the beam propagation method and an analytical model showed good agreement with experimental results over a broad crossing angle and wavelength range.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(130.1750) Integrated optics : Components
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: October 27, 2005
Revised Manuscript: February 10, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: March 31, 2006

Citation
Faisal R. M. Adikan, Corin B. E. Gawith, Peter G. R. Smith, Ian J. G. Sparrow, Gregory D. Emmerson, Christos Riziotis, and Harith Ahmad, "Design and demonstration of direct UV-written small angle X couplers in silica-on-silicon for broadband operation," Appl. Opt. 45, 6113-6118 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-24-6113


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, "Advances in silica-based integrated optics," Opt. Eng. 42, 2821-2834 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Laser writing of waveguides in photosensitive glasses," Opt. Mater. 25, 109-115 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, "Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984-1000 (1988). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Durandet, A. Perry, R. Boswell, F. Ladouceur, J. Love, M. Faith, P. Kemeny, X. Ma, and M. Austin, "Silica buried channel waveguides fabricated at low temperature using PECVD," Electron. Lett. 4, 326-327 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Kawachi, "Recent progress in silica-based planar lightwave circuits on silicon," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 1996), pp. 257-262. [CrossRef]
  6. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978). [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, and R. I. Laming, "All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing," in IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics (IEE, U.K., 2004), pp. 119-122. [CrossRef]
  10. M. Svalgaard, "Direct writing of planar waveguide power splitters and directional couplers using a focussed ultraviolet laser beam," Electron. Lett. 33, 1694-1695 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Guilhot, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, D. P. Shepherd, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Single-mode direct-ultraviolet-written channel waveguide laser in neodymium-doped silica on silicon," Opt. Lett. 29, 947-949 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. J. G. Sparrow, G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, "Assessment of waveguide thermal response by interrogation of UV written planar gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 438-440 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. G. Przyembel and B. Kuhlow, "Waveguide crossings with low crosstalk at small angles," Electron. Lett. 38, 1533-1535 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, "Thermooptical digital switch arrays in silica-on-silicon with defined zero-voltage state," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 395-400 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing," Opt. Express 10, 645-652 (2002). [PubMed]
  17. H. G. Bukkems, C. G. P. Herben, M. K. Smit, F. H. Groen, and I. Moerman, "Minimization of the loss of intersecting waveguides in InP-based photonic integrated circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1420-1422 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. F. Durr and H. Renner, "Analytical design of X-couplers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 876-885 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Gevorgyan and A. Hovsepyan, "Power distribution in symmetric integrated optic X junction," Electron. Lett. 26, 788-789 (1990). [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. Forber and E. Marom, "Symmetric directional coupler switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 911-919 (1986). [CrossRef]
  21. N. Agrawal, L. McCaughan, and S. R. Seshadri, "A multiple scattering interaction analysis of intersecting waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2187-2193 (1987). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Svalgaard and M. Kristensen, "Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low loss," Electron. Lett. 33, 861-863 (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Olivero and M. Svalgaard, "Direct UV-written broadband directional planar waveguide couplers," Opt. Express 13, 8390-8399 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, V. Albanis, R. B. Williams, S. G. Mc McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, and P. G. R. Smith, "Photosensitivity locking technique applied to UV written planar Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 517-518 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited