OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 27 — Sep. 20, 2006
  • pp: 7005–7011

Refractive effects in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

Nadia Djaker, David Gachet, Nicolas Sandeau, Pierre-Francois Lenne, and Hervé Rigneault  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 27, pp. 7005-7011 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (624 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy with high sensitivity and high three- dimensional resolution has been developed for the vibrational imaging of chemical species. Due to the coherent nature of the CARS emission, it has been reported that the detection of epi-CARS and forward-CARS (F-CARS) signals depends on the size and shape of the sample. We investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects on the CARS signal of refractive index mismatches between the sample and its surroundings. Backward-CARS and F-CARS signals are measured for different polystyrene bead diameters embedded in different refractive index solvents. We show that index mismatches result in a backward-reflected F-CARS signal that generally dominates the experimentally backward-detected signal. Simulations based on geometrical and wave optics comparing forward- and backward-detected signals for polystyrene beads embedded in different index solvents confirm our findings. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the maxima of forward- and backward-detected signals are generated at different positions along the optical axis in the sample if refractive index mismatches are present between the sample and its surroundings.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(180.6900) Microscopy : Three-dimensional microscopy
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
(290.5910) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Raman
(300.2570) Spectroscopy : Four-wave mixing
(300.6230) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

Original Manuscript: December 14, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: February 14, 2006

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Nadia Djaker, David Gachet, Nicolas Sandeau, Pierre-Francois Lenne, and Hervé Rigneault, "Refractive effects in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 7005-7011 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. Lotem, R. T. Lynch, and N. Bloembergen, "Interference between Raman resonances in four-wave difference mixing," Phys. Rev. A 14 (5), 1748-1755 (1976). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Volkmer, "Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phy. D 38, R59-R81 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. G. C. Bjorklund, "Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE11, 287-296 (1975).
  5. E. O. Potma, W. P. Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, "Nonlinear coherent four-wave mixing in optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1678-1684 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, "Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363-1375 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. T. D. Visser, J. L. Oud, and G. J. Brakenhoff, "Refractive-index and axial distance measurements in 3D microscopy," Optik 90, 17-19 (1992).
  9. T. D. Visser and J. L. Oud, "Volume measurements in 3-dimensional microscopy," Scanning 16, 198-200 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive-index," J. Microsc. 169, 391-405 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Jacobsen, P. Hannien, E. Soini, and S. W. Hell, "Refractive-index-induced aberrations in 2-photon confocal fluorescence microscopy," J. Microsc. 176, 226-230 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. G. J. De Grauw, J. M. Vroom, H. T. M. Van der Voort, and H. C. Gerritsen, "Imaging properties in two-photon excitation microscopy and effects of refractive-index mismatch in thick specimens," Appl. Opt. 38, 5995-6003 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Diaspro, F. Federici, and M. Robello, "Influence of refractive-index mismatch in high-resolution three-dimensional confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 41, 685-690 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. C. Kuypers, W. F. Decraemer, J. J. J. Dirckx, and J. P. Timmermans, "A procedure to determine the correct thickness of an object with confocal microscopy in case of refractive index mismatch," J. Microsc. 218, 68-78 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. O. Potma, D. J. Jones, J. X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and J. Ye, "High-sensitivity coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with two tightly synchronized picosecond lasers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1168-1170 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited