Analytical techniques known in the literature are used to (i) identify all the planar waveguide modes in four top-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structures over the visible spectrum, and (ii) compute both TM and TE power spectra for classically radiating dipoles in the emissive layers of these OLED structures. Peaks in the computed power spectra are identified with the waveguide modes in the OLED devices, and areas associated with these peaks are used to estimate the excitation probability of the waveguide modes. In cases where ambiguities arise because of overlapping peaks, it is shown that computed power spectra can be approximated as sums of Lorentzian line shapes. It is found that for all four structures, the dipoles couple almost 80% of their radiant energy into TM modes with only about 20% going into TE modes. Furthermore, except for a narrow spectral band, the excited TM modes are primarily short-range surface plasmon polaritons. Excitations in the narrow spectral band correspond to TM and TE Fabry–Perot microcavity modes. Finally, the analysis shows that, in the absence of grating couplers, only light in the microcavity modes escapes into the air cover.
© 2006 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: February 23, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: April 18, 2006
Joseph F. Revelli, "Excitation of waveguide modes in organic light-emitting diode structures by classical dipole oscillators," Appl. Opt. 45, 7151-7165 (2006)