OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 30 — Oct. 20, 2006
  • pp: 7912–7923

Wind loads on ground-based telescopes

Douglas G. MacMynowski, Konstantinos Vogiatzis, George Z. Angeli, Joeleff Fitzsimmons, and Jerry E. Nelson  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 30, pp. 7912-7923 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.007912


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1745 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

One of the factors that can influence the performance of large optical telescopes is the vibration of the telescope structure due to unsteady wind inside the telescope enclosure. Estimating the resulting degradation in image quality has been difficult because of the relatively poor understanding of the flow characteristics. Significant progress has recently been made, informed by measurements in existing observatories, wind-tunnel tests, and computational fluid dynamic analyses. We combine the information from these sources to summarize the relevant wind characteristics and enable a model of the dynamic wind loads on a telescope structure within an enclosure. The amplitude, temporal spectrum, and spatial distribution of wind disturbances are defined as a function of relevant design parameters, providing a significant improvement in our understanding of an important design issue.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.6770) Imaging systems : Telescopes
(120.7280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Vibration analysis

History
Original Manuscript: October 14, 2005
Revised Manuscript: May 22, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: June 1, 2006

Citation
Douglas G. MacMynowski, Konstantinos Vogiatzis, George Z. Angeli, Joeleff Fitzsimmons, and Jerry E. Nelson, "Wind loads on ground-based telescopes," Appl. Opt. 45, 7912-7923 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-30-7912


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. Padin and W. Davison, "Model of image degradation due to wind buffeting on an extremely large telescope," Appl. Opt. 43, 592-600 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. G. MacMynowski, C. Blaurock, G. Z. Angeli, and K. Vogiatzis, "Modeling wind-buffeting of the Thirty Meter Telescope," in Modeling, Systems Engineering and Program Management for Astronomy II, M.Cullum and G.Angeli, eds., Proc. SPIE 6271, 62710M (2006).
  3. M. K. Cho, L. Stepp, and S. Kim, "Wind buffeting effects on the Gemini 8 m primary mirrors," in Optomechanical Design and Engineering, A.Hatheway, ed., Proc. SPIE 4444,302-314 (2001).
  4. M. K. Cho, L. M. Stepp, G. Z. Angeli, and D. R. Smith, "Wind loading of large telescopes," in Large Ground-Based Telescopes, J.M.Oschman and L.M.Stepp, eds., Proc. SPIE 4837, pp. 352-367 (2002).
  5. G. Z. Angeli, M. K. Cho, M. Sheehan, and L. M. Stepp, "Characterization of wind loading of telescopes," in Integrated Modeling of Telescopes, T.Andersen, ed., Proc. SPIE 4757,72-83 (2002).
  6. T. Pottebaum and D. G. MacMynowski, "Buffeting of large telescopes: wind tunnel measurements of flow in a generic enclosure," J. Fluids Struct. 22, 3-19 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Vogiatzis, A. Segurson, and G. Z. Angeli, "Estimating the effect of wind loading on extremely large telescope performance using computational fluid dynamics," in Modeling and Systems Engineering for Astronomy, S.C.Craig and M.J.Cullum, eds., Proc. SPIE 5497, pp. 311-320 (2004)
  8. F. Forbes and G. Gabor, "Wind loading of large astronomical telescopes," in Advanced Technology Telescopes, Proc. SPIE 332, 198-205 (1982).
  9. M. Ravensbergen, "Main axes servo systems of the VLT," in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L.M.Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE 2199,997-1005 (1994).
  10. T. M. Erm and G. Z. Angeli, "TMT wind model validation with measurements at Keck and Gemini," in Modeling, Systems Engineering and Program Management for Astronomy II, M.Cullum and G.Angeli, eds., Proc. SPIE 6271, 62710N (2006).
  11. T. Kiceniuk and K. Potter, Internal Air Flow Patterns for the Keck 10 Meter Telescope Observatory Dome, Keck Observatory Report #166 (Keck Observatory, 1986).
  12. M. Schneermann, "VLT enclosures wind tunnel tests and fluid dynamic analyses," in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L.M.Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE 2199,465-476 (1994).
  13. J. Fitzsimmons, J. Dunn, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, S. Roberts, M. Mamou, and K. Cooper, "Predicting the aerodynamic performance of the Canadian very large optical telescope," in Modeling and Systems Engineering for Astronomy, S.C.Craig and M.J.Cullum, eds., Proc. SPIE 5497,321-328 (2004).
  14. H. Riewaldt, M. Lastiwka, N. Quinlan, K. McNamara, X. Wang, T. Andersen, and A. Shearer, "Wind on the Euro50 enclosure," in Astronomical Structures and Mechanisms Technology, J.Antebi and D.Lemke, eds., Proc. SPIE 5495,537-548 (2004).
  15. D. S. DeYoung, "Numerical simulations of airflow in telescope enclosures," Astron. J. 112, 2896-2908 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Padin, "Wind-induced deformations in a segmented mirror," Appl. Opt. 41, 2381-2389 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Vogiatzis and G. Z. Angeli, "Strategies for estimating mirror and dome seeing for TMT," in Modeling, Systems Engineering and Program Management for Astronomy II, M.Cullum and G.Angeli, eds., Proc. SPIE 6271, 62710O (2006).
  18. J. E. Rossiter, "Wind-tunnel experiments on the flow over rectangular cavities at subsonic and transonic speeds," Aeronautical Research Council Reports and Memoranda, No. 3438, (1964).
  19. D. G. MacMartin, "Control challenges for extremely large telescopes," in Smart Structures and Materials 2003: Industrial and Commercial Applications of Smart Structures Technology, E.H.Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE 5054,275-286 (2003).
  20. V. Yakhot, S. A. Orszag, S. Tangham, T. B. Gatski, and C. G. Speziale, "Development of turbulence models for shear flows by a double expansion technique," Phys. Fluids A 4, 1510-1520 (1992). [CrossRef]
  21. B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding, "The numerical computation of turbulent flows," Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 3, 269-289 (1974). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Smagorinsky, "General circulation experiments with the primitive equations: 1. the basic experiment," Mon. Weather Rev. 91, 99-164 (1963). [CrossRef]
  23. W. R. Sears, "Some aspects of non-stationary airfoil theory and its applications," J. Aeronaut. Sci. 8, 104-108 (1941).
  24. H. W. Liepmann, "On the application of statistical concepts to the buffeting problem," J. Aeronaut. Sci. 19, 793-800 and 822 (1952).
  25. A. G. Davenport, "Buffeting of a suspension bridge by storm winds," J. Struct. Div. ASCE 88, 233-264 (1962).
  26. G. R. Srinivasan, "Acoustics and unsteady flow of telescope cavity in an airplane," J. Aircr. 27, 274-281 (2000). [CrossRef]
  27. D. Rockwell, J.-C. Lin, P. Oshkai, M. Reiss, and M. Pollack, "Shallow cavity flow tone experiments: onset of locked-on states," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 381-414 (2003). [CrossRef]
  28. C. W. Rowley, D. R. Williams, T. Colonius, R. M. Murray, and D. G. MacMynowski, "Linear models for control of cavity flow oscillations," J. Fluid Mech. 547, 317-330 (2006). [CrossRef]
  29. K. Karbon and R. Singh, "Simulation and design of automobile sunroof buffeting noise control," in Eighth AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, June 2002, AIAA 2002-2550 (AIAA, 2002).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited