OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 2006
  • pp: 619–625

Side diffusion modeling by the explicit consideration of a space-charge buildup under the mask during strip waveguide formation in the Ag+–Na+ field-assisted ion-exchange process

Piotr Mrozek, Ewa Mrozek, and Tadeusz Lukaszewicz  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 4, pp. 619-625 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.000619


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (226 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A space-charge buildup under the blocking mask in a field-assisted Ag + Na + ion-exchange modeling is assumed. It results in the distortion of electric field lines in the direction under the mask edges. As a result, side diffusion occurs and the numerical model shows the same range of side diffusion as the experimental data. Explicit consideration of the space-charge buildup under the mask and solving the Poisson equation for the electric field determination make it possible to use more realistic boundary conditions in the numerical model, compared to the boundary conditions generally used.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: March 24, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: June 24, 2005

Citation
Piotr Mrozek, Ewa Mrozek, and Tadeusz Lukaszewicz, "Side diffusion modeling by the explicit consideration of a space-charge buildup under the mask during strip waveguide formation in the Ag+-Na+ field-assisted ion-exchange process," Appl. Opt. 45, 619-625 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-4-619


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. C. R. Lavers, K. Itoh, S. C. Wu, M. Murabayashi, I. Mauchline, G. Stewart, and T. Stout, "Planar optical waveguides for sensing applications," Sens. Actuators B 69, 85-95 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Belkhir, "A comparative study of silver diffusion in a glass substrate for optical waveguide applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 306-311 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and S. Najafi, "Analysis of symmetric directional couplers and asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers as 1.30- and 1.55-µm dual wavelength demultiplexers/multiplexers," Opt. Eng. 32, 2083-2090 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. R. G. Walker, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and J. A. H. Wilkinson, "Integrated optical waveguiding structures made by silver ion-exchange in glass. 1: The propagation characteristics of stripe ion-exchanged waveguides; a theoretical and experimental investigation," Appl. Opt. 22, 1923-1935 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. G. Walker and C. D. W. Wilkinson, "Integrated optical waveguiding structures made by silver ion-exchange in glass. 2: Directional coupler and bends," Appl. Opt. 22, 1929-1936 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Pantchev, Z. Nikolov, and E. Voges, "Coupling efficiency in ion-exchanged homogeneous refracting waveguide lenses in glass," Opt. Commun. 135, 247-250 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. V. Francois, T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, and S. I. Najafi, "Thermally silver ion exchanged integrated-optic lasers in neodymium-doped silicate glass," Opt. Commun. 119, 104-108 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. E. Mrozek and P. Mrozek, "Thin dielectric electrodiffusion masks for Ag+-Na+ ion exchange applications," J. Tech. Phys. 44, 289-294 (2003).
  9. D. Cheng, J. Saarinen, H. Saarikoski, and A. Tervonen, "Simulation of field-assisted ion exchange for glass channel waveguide fabrication: effect of nonhomogeneous time-dependent electric conductivity," Opt. Commun. 137, 233-238 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Albert and J. W. Y. Lit, "Full modeling of field-assisted ion exchange for graded index buried channel optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 29, 2798-2804 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. R. West, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, "Modeling of ion-exchanged glass waveguide structures," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 18-26 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Tervonen, "A general model for fabrication processes of channel waveguides by ion exchange," J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2746-2752 (1990). [CrossRef]
  13. X. Prieto, R. Srivastava, J. Linares, and C. Montero, "Prediction of space-charge density and space-charge field in thermally ion-exchanged planar surface waveguides," Opt. Mater. 5, 145-151 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Wallis, "Direct-current polarization during field-assisted glass-metal sealing," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 53, 563-567 (1970). [CrossRef]
  15. D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, and G. F. Stockdale, "Electrode polarization in alkali-containing glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 55, 337-341 (1972). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Sutton, "Space charge and electrode polarization in glass," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 47, 219-230 (1964). [CrossRef]
  17. D. Kapila and J. L. Plawsky, "Diffusion processes for integrated waveguide fabrication in glasses: a solid-state electrochemical approach," Chem. Eng. Sci. 50, 2589-2600 (1995). [CrossRef]
  18. R. G. Gossink, "SIMS Analysis of a field-assisted glass-to-metal seal," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 61, 539-540 (1978). [CrossRef]
  19. P. B. DeNee, "Low energy metal-glass bonding," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 5396-5397 (1969). [CrossRef]
  20. S. Honkanen and A. Tervonen, "Experimental analysis of Ag+-Na+ exchange in glass with Ag film ion sources for planar optical waveguide fabrication," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 634-639 (1988). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited