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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 8 — Mar. 10, 2006
  • pp: 1721–1724

Optical properties of fluids for 248 and 193 nm immersion photolithography

Simon G. Kaplan and John H. Burnett  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 8, pp. 1721-1724 (2006)

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We present measured values of the refractive index, thermo-optic coefficient, and absorption coefficient of a number of common organic solvents and aqueous inorganic solutions that may have application in immersion photolithography at 248 or 193   nm wavelengths. The measurements were performed with a laser-based Hilger–Chance refractometer system whose design and operation are described. The optical properties of the sample fluids are compared with those of water, the currently favored immersion medium, and we discuss the potential for finding higher-index fluids that will be suitable for this application.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.5710) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Refraction
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: June 13, 2005
Revised Manuscript: September 20, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: September 21, 2005

Simon G. Kaplan and John H. Burnett, "Optical properties of fluids for 248 and 193 nm immersion photolithography," Appl. Opt. 45, 1721-1724 (2006)

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  1. S. Owa, H. Nagasaka, Y. Ishii, O. Hirakawa, and T. Yamamoto, "Feasibility of immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5377, 264-272 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. C. A. Mack, "The lithography expert: the Rayleigh depth of focus," Microlith. World 13 (February), 14-15 (2004).
  3. J. H. Burnett and S. G. Kaplan, "Measurement of the refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient of water near 193 nm," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 3, 68-72 (2004). [CrossRef]
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  7. J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).
  8. B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005). [CrossRef]
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  14. K. R. Wolf, "Phosphoric acid as a high-index immersion fluid," in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Microelectronic Engineering Conference (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2004), pp. 40-43.

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