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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 8 — Mar. 10, 2006
  • pp: 1730–1736

Direct index of refraction measurements at extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray wavelengths

Kristine Rosfjord, Chang Chang, Ryan Miyakawa, Holly Barth, and David Attwood  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 8, pp. 1730-1736 (2006)

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Coherent radiation from undulator beamlines has been used to directly measure the real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction of several materials at both extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray wavelengths. Using the XOR interferometer, we measure the refractive indices of silicon and ruthenium, essential materials for extreme-ultraviolet lithography. Both materials are tested at wavelength ( 13.4   nm ) and across silicon's L 2 ( 99.8   eV ) and L 3 ( 99.2   eV ) absorption edges. We further extend this direct phase measurement method into the soft-x-ray region, where measurements of chromium and vanadium are performed around their L3 absorption edges at 574.1 and 512.1   eV , respectively. These are the first direct measurements, to our knowledge, of the real part of the index of refraction made in the soft-x-ray region.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(160.2120) Materials : Elements
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(340.7480) X-ray optics : X-rays, soft x-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: May 3, 2005
Revised Manuscript: August 16, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: September 2, 2005

Kristine Rosfjord, Chang Chang, Ryan Miyakawa, Holly Barth, and David Attwood, "Direct index of refraction measurements at extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 45, 1730-1736 (2006)

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