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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 2006
  • pp: 1957–1963

Lithographic characterization of the spherical error in an extreme-ultraviolet optic by use of a programmable pupil-fill illuminator

Patrick P. Naulleau, Jason P. Cain, and Kenneth A. Goldberg  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 9, pp. 1957-1963 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.001957


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Abstract

Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography remains a leading contender for use in the mass production of nanoelectronics at the 32   nm node. Great progress has been made in all areas of EUV lithography, including the crucial issue of fabrication of diffraction-limited optics. To gain an accurate understanding of the projection optic wavefront error in a completed lithography tool requires lithography-based aberration measurements; however, making such measurements in EUV systems can be challenging. We describe the quantitative lithographic measurement of spherical aberration in a 0.3 numerical aperture. EUV microfield optic. The measurement method is based on use of the unique properties of a programmable coherence illuminator. The results show the optic to have 1   nm rms spherical error, whereas interferometric measurements performed during the alignment of the optic indicated a spherical error of less than 0.1   nm   rms .

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(080.1010) Geometric optics : Aberrations (global)
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(260.7200) Physical optics : Ultraviolet, extreme
(340.6720) X-ray optics : Synchrotron radiation

ToC Category:
Physical Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 18, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: October 21, 2005

Citation
Patrick P. Naulleau, Jason P. Cain, and Kenneth A. Goldberg, "Lithographic characterization of the spherical error in an extreme-ultraviolet optic by use of a programmable pupil-fill illuminator," Appl. Opt. 45, 1957-1963 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-9-1957


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References

  1. R. Stulen and D. Sweeney, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694-699 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, J. Cain, E. Anderson, P. Denham, K. Jackson, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, and G. Zhang, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2962-2965 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, J. Cain, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, S. Rekawa, and K. Dean, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. MacKay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 56-63 (2005).
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  8. P. Naulleau, J. Cain, and K. Goldberg, "Lithographic characterization of the field dependent astigmatism and alignment stability of a 0.3 numerical aperture EUV microfield optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (to be published).
  9. P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, and S. Rekawa, "A Fourier-synthesis custom-coherence illuminator for EUV microfield lithography," Appl. Opt. 42, 820-826 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. PROLITH is a registered trademark of KLA-Tencor Corporation, 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, Calif. 95134.
  11. K. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Denham, S. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. Anderson, and J. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3 NA MET optic," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2956-2961 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Brainard, T. Koehler, P. Naulleau, and D. van Steenwinckel, "Performance of EUV photoresists on the ALS micro exposure tool," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. S. Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 754-764 (2005).
  13. P. Naulleau, P. Denham, and S. Rekawa, "Design and implementation of a vacuum compatible laser-based subnanometer resolution absolute distance measurement system," Opt. Eng. 44, 13,605-13,609 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. CODE V is a registered trademark of Optical Research Associates, Suite 300, 3280 East Foothill Boulevard, Pasadena, Calif. 91107-3103.
  15. P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, K. Bradley, R. Delano, P. Denham, B. Gunion, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, H. Huang, K. Jackson, G. Jones, D. Kemp, A. Liddle, R. Oort, A. Rawlins, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, R. Tackaberry, C. Chung, L. Hale, D. Phillion, G. Sommargren, and J. Taylor, "Status of EUV microexposure capabilities at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET optic," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VIII, R. S. MacKay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004). [CrossRef]

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