OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 45, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 2006
  • pp: 2058–2071

Modeling and optimization of Q -switched double-clad fiber lasers

Yong Wang and Chang-Qing Xu  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 9, pp. 2058-2071 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.002058


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1587 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The numerical modeling of actively Q-switched fiber lasers is systematically presented. On the basis of typical Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber lasers under forward and backward pump, the dynamic characteristics of pulse energy, pulse width, population inversion, and stored energy at tens-of-kilohertz repetition rates are studied by using the traveling-wave method. The laser performance is further investigated for different fiber core diameters, doping rates, cavity lengths, fiber losses, signal and pump wavelengths, reflectivities of output coupler, and switching speed of an acousto-optic modulator; the laser optimization is also quantitatively discussed. Some simulation results are also compared with previous experimental results.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
(140.3570) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, single-mode

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 8, 2005
Revised Manuscript: September 15, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: October 3, 2005

Citation
Yong Wang and Chang-Qing Xu, "Modeling and optimization of Q-switched double-clad fiber lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 2058-2071 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-9-2058


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. Zenteno, "High-power double-clad fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435-1446 (1993). [CrossRef]
  2. H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2001.) [CrossRef]
  4. C. J. Gaeta, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, "Pulse characteristics of Q-switched fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1645-1651 (1987). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, and J. R. Simpson, "High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371-377 (1992). [CrossRef]
  6. P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, E. R. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, "Short-pulse, high-power Q-switched fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 545-547 (1992). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Shi, J. P. Ragey, and O. Poulsen, "Dye laser pumped Pr3+-doped fiber lasers: basic parameter investigation, CW operation, and Q-switched operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1402-1406 (1993). [CrossRef]
  8. P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, and E. R. Taylor, "Q-switched neodymium-doped phosphate glass fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2178-2188 (1993). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, "Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 706-707 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Diode pumped high power simultaneously Q-switched and self mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 332-333 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, "Q-switched erbium doped fibre laser utilising a novel large mode area fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 393-394 (1997). [CrossRef]
  12. P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53 μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. D. J. Richardson, P. Britton, and D. Taverner, "Diode-pumped, high-energy, single transverse mode Q-switch fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1955-1956 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. H. L. Offerhaus, N. G. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, R. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, "High-energy single-transverse-mode Q-switched fiber laser based on a multimode large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber," Opt. Lett. 23, 1683-1685 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. Price, T. Monro, J. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. Richardson, "Cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with holey inner and outer cladding," Opt. Express 9, 714-720 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, "High-peak-power operation of a Q-switched Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser operating near 2 μm," Opt. Lett. 28, 22-24 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, and G.-Y. Zhang, "105-kW peak-power double-clad fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 652-654 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Pulse evolution of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Eng. 42, 2521-2526 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, T. M. Pollak, P. A. Budni, Y. E. Young, and E. P. Chicklis, "5-W repetitively Q-switched Er:LuAG laser resonantly pumped by an erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1787-1789 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Piper, A. Malinowski, K. Furusawa, and D. J. Richardson, "High-power, high-brightness, mJ Q-switched ytterbium-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 928-929 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994). [CrossRef]
  24. J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989). [CrossRef]
  25. D. H. Stone, "Effects of axial nonuniformity in modeling Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1970-1973 (1992).
  26. P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Analysis and optimization of a Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser working with a short rise time modulator," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 235-240 (1996). [CrossRef]
  27. S. Adachi and Y. Koyamada, "Analysis and design of Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers and their application to OTDR," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1506-1511 (2002). [CrossRef]
  28. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1996).
  29. Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Analysis of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with simultaneous mode locking," Opt. Commun. 224, 113-123 (2003). [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Huo, R. T. Brown, G. G. King, and P. K. Cheo "Kinetic modeling of Q-switched high-power ytterbium-doped fiber lasers," Appl. Opt. 43, 1404-1411 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Y. Wang and C.-Q. Xu, "Understanding multipeak phenomena in actively Q-switched fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1060-1062 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Swiderski, A. Zajac, P. Konieczny, and M. Skorczakowski, "Numerical model of a Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Express 12, 3554-3559 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Y. Wang and C.-Q. Xu, "Switching-induced perturbation and influence on actively Q-switched fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1583-1596 (2004). [CrossRef]
  34. Y. Huo, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, "Modeling and experiments of actively Q-switched Er3+-Yb3+ codoped clad-pumped fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 573-580 (2005). [CrossRef]
  35. D. J. Ripin and L. Goldberg, "High efficiency side-coupling of light into optical fibers using imbedded v-grooves," Electron. Lett. 31, 2204-2205 (1995). [CrossRef]
  36. R. Oron and A. A. Hardy, "Rayleigh backscattering and amplified spontaneous emission in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 695-701 (1999). [CrossRef]
  37. J. Nilsson, J. D. Minelly, R. Paschotta, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ring-doped cladding-pumped single-mode three-level fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 23, 355-357 (1998). [CrossRef]
  38. J. Xu, J. Lu, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "Influence of cross-sectional shape on absorption characteristics of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 42, 2527-2533 (2003). [CrossRef]
  39. A. Martinez-Rios, A. N. Starodumov, H. Po, Y. Wang, A. A. Demidov, and X. Li, "Efficient operation of double-clad Yb3+-doped fiber lasers with a novel circular cladding geometry," Opt. Lett. 28, 1642-1644 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. J. W. Thomas, Numerical Partial Differential Equations: Finite Difference Methods (Springer-Verlag, 1995).
  41. O. G. Okhotnikov and J. R. Salcedo, "Emission buildup in Q-switched fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 887-889 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Y. Wang and H. Po, "Dynamic characteristics of double-clad fiber amplifiers for high-power pulse amplification," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2262-2270 (2003). [CrossRef]
  43. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995.)
  44. Z. J. Chen, A. B. Grudinin, J. Porta, and J. D. Minelly, "Enhanced Q switching in double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 23, 454-456 (1998). [CrossRef]
  45. Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Experimental study of stimulated Brillouin and Raman scatterings in a Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 201-214 (2004). [CrossRef]
  46. Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang "Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 724-726 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. J. Limpert, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "High-average-power millijoule fiber amplifier system," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 591-592.
  48. F. D. Teodoro, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, and D. A. V. Kliner, "Diffraction-limited, 300-kW-peak-power pulses from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 592-593.
  49. Y. Wang, "Optimization of pulse amplification in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2139-2147 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited