OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 10 — Apr. 1, 2007
  • pp: 1866–1871

Recording invertebrate nerve activation with modulated light changes

Matthew D. McCluskey, Jeffrey J. Sable, Amanda J. Foust, Gabriele Gratton, and David M. Rector  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 10, pp. 1866-1871 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (725 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Optical scattering techniques have the potential to provide noninvasive measurements of neural activity with good spatial and temporal resolution. We used the lobster nerve as a model system to investigate and record event-related optical signals with a modulated light source and heterodyne detection system. We observed changes in the transmitted birefringent light intensity, corresponding with electrophysiological measurements of the action potential. The photon delay was below the detection threshold, in part due to the small size of the nerve bundle. Our system allowed us to place an upper bound on the magnitude of the phase change of 0.01°. The physiological stability of the preparation allows comprehensive characterization of biological and instrumentation noise sources for testing optical measurement systems.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.5280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Photon migration
(170.6920) Medical optics and biotechnology : Time-resolved imaging

ToC Category:
Optics in neuroscience

Original Manuscript: June 29, 2006
Revised Manuscript: October 23, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: November 16, 2006
Published: March 13, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Matthew D. McCluskey, Jeffrey J. Sable, Amanda J. Foust, Gabriele Gratton, and David M. Rector, "Recording invertebrate nerve activation with modulated light changes," Appl. Opt. 46, 1866-1871 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Grinvald, "Optical imaging of architecture and function in the living brain sheds new light on cortical mechanisms underlying visual perception," Brain Topogr. 5, 71-75 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, "Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707-716 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Hoshi, I. Oda, Y. Wada, Y. Ito, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, K. Ohta, Y. Yamada, and M. Tamura, "Visuospatial imagery is a fruitful strategy for the digit span backward task: a study with near-infrared optical tomography," Cognitive Brain Research 9, 339-342 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, "Light scattering and birefringence changes during nerve activation," Nature 218, 438-441 (1968). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and D. Landowne, "Changes in light scattering that accompany the action potential in squid giant axons: potential-dependent components," J. Physiol. 224, 701-725 (1972). [PubMed]
  6. D. Landowne, "Molecular motion underlying activation and inactivation of sodium channels in squid giant axons," J. Membr. Biol. 88, 173-185 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. C. Yao, A. Foust, D. M. Rector, B. Barrowes, and J. S. George, "Cross-polarized reflected light measurement of fast optical responses associated with neural activation," Biophys. J. 88, 4170-4177 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. J. Foust, R. M. Beiu, and D. M. Rector, "Optimized birefringence changes during isolated nerve activation," Appl. Opt. 44, 2008-2012 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, and B. Tromberg, "Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457-3481 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Yang, H. Liu, X. Li, and B. Chance, "Low-cost frequency-domain photon migration instrument for tissue spectroscopy, oximetry, and imaging," Opt. Eng. 36, 1562-1569 (1997). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Rinne, G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, N. Cowan, E. Maclin, A. Stinard, J. Sinkkonen, K. Alho, and R. Näätänen, "Scalp-recorded optical signals make sound processing in the auditory cortex visible," NeuroImage 10, 620-624 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Gratton and M. Fabiani, "Shedding light on brain function: the event-related optical signal," Trends Cogn. Sci. 5, 357-363 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Fabiani, K. A. Low, E. Wee, J. J. Sable, and G. Gratton, "Reduced suppression or labile memory? Mechanisms of inefficient filtering of irrelevant information in older adults," J. Cognitive Neuroscience (to be published).
  15. C.-Y. Tse, K.-R. Tien, and T. B. Penney, "Event-related optical imaging reveals the temporal dynamics of right temporal and frontal cortex activation in pre-attentive change detection," NeuroImage 29, 314-320 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. G. Gratton and M. Fabiani, "The event-related optical signal (EROS) in visual cortex: Replicability, consistency, localization, and resolution," Psychophysiology 40, 561-571 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. L. Maclin, K. A. Low, J. J. Sable, M. Fabiani, and G. Gratton, "The event-related optical signal to electrical stimulation of the median nerve," NeuroImage 21, 1798-1804 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Syré, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, M. Kohl, R. Wenzel, and A. Villringer, "Are VEP correlated fast optical signals detectable in the human adult by non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)?" Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 530, 421-431 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. A. Fedderson, D. W. Piston, and E. Gratton, "Digital parallel acquisition in frequency domain fluorimetry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2929-2936 (1989). [CrossRef]
  20. J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, and E. Gratton, "Possible correlation between blood glucose concentration and the reduced scattering coefficient of tissues in the near infrared," Opt. Lett. 19, 2062-2064 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Furusawa, "The depolarization of a crustacean nerve by stimulation or oxygen want," J. Physiol. 67, 325-342 (1929). [PubMed]
  22. K. M. Carter, J. S. George, and D. M. Rector, "Simultaneous birefringence and scattered light measurements reveal anatomical features in isolated crustacean nerve," J. Neurosci. Methods 135, 9-16 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. E. Cooper, C. E. Elwell, J. H. Meek, S. J. Matcher, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The noninvasive measurement of absolute cerebral deoxyhemoglobin concentration and mean optical path length in the neonatal brain by second derivative near infrared spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 39, 32-38 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Koyama, A. Iwasaki, Y. Ogoshi, and E. Okada, "Practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with low-scattering regions by use of diffusion theory," Appl. Opt. 44, 2094-2103 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. N. Ramanujam, C. Du, H. Y. Ma, and B. Chance, "Sources of phase noise in homodyne and heterodyne phase modulation devices used for tissue oximetry studies," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3042-3054 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited