OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2007
  • pp: 2180–2188

Analysis of multimask fabrication errors for diffractive optical elements

Adam J. Caley, Markus Braun, Andrew J. Waddie, and Mohammad R. Taghizadeh  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 12, pp. 2180-2188 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.002180


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1273 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

As design algorithms for diffractive optical elements improve, the limiting factor becomes the fabrication process. It is hoped a better understanding of fabrication errors will allow elements with greater tolerance to be designed. This is important for high-power laser fiber coupling, where hot spots lead to failure. We model seven different fan-out gratings applying misetch, misalignment, and feature rounding. Our main findings are that misetch can lead to improved results, misalignment is strongly asymmetric, and both the π and π / 2 masks can dominate misalignment. Rounding has a r 2 dependence and potentially can be incorporated into the design stage. Finally we present some experimental data for misalignment.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(090.1970) Holography : Diffractive optics
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

History
Original Manuscript: August 10, 2006
Revised Manuscript: November 17, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: December 1, 2006
Published: April 3, 2007

Citation
Adam J. Caley, Markus Braun, Andrew J. Waddie, and Mohammad R. Taghizadeh, "Analysis of multimask fabrication errors for diffractive optical elements," Appl. Opt. 46, 2180-2188 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-12-2180


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. J. Thomson and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Diffractive elements for high-power fibre coupling applications," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1691-1699 (2003).
  2. K. Ballüder and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Regenerative ring-laser design by use of an intracavity diffractive mode-selecting element," Appl. Opt. 38, 5768-5774 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Taghizadeh and A. J. Waddie, "Micro-optical and optoelectronic components for optical interconnection applications," Acta Phys. Pol. A 101, 175-188 (2002).
  4. M. W. Farn, M. B. Stern, W. B. Veldkamp, and S. S. Medeiros, "Color separation by use of binary optics," Opt. Lett. 18, 1214-1216 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Ha, H. Hua, and J. P. Rolland, "Design of an ultralight and compact projection lens," Appl. Opt. 42, 97-107 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. W. Lohmann and D. P. Paris, "Binary Fraunhofer holograms, generated by computer," Appl. Opt. 6, 1739-1748 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. S. Liu, A. J. Caley, and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Symmetrical iterative Fourier-transform algorithm using both phase and amplitude freedoms," Opt. Commun. 267, 347-355 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, "Optimization by simulated annealing," Science 220, 671-679 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. R. Taghizadeh, P. Blair, B. Layet, I. M. Barton, A. J. Waddie, and N. Ross, "Design and fabrication of diffractive optical elements," Microelectron. Eng. 34, 219-242 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Bengtsson and M. Johansson, "Fan-out diffractive optical elements designed for increased fabrication tolerence to linear relief depth errors," Appl. Opt. 41, 281-289 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. Kettunen, K. Jefimovs, J. Simonen, O. Ripoll, M. Kuittinen, and H. P. Herzig, "Diffractive elements designed to suppress unwanted zeroth order due to surface depth error," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2111-2123 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, and N. Ross, "Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments," Appl. Opt. 32, 2519-2525 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. U. D. Zeitner and P. Dannberg, "On-axis diffractive elements with improved signal quality in the presence of fabrication errors and wavelength tolerances," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2051-2057 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. A. J. Waddie and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Interference effects in far-field diffractive optical elements," Appl. Opt. 34, 5915-5919 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. K. Ballüder and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Optimized quantization for diffractive phase elements by use of uneven phase levels," Opt. Lett. 26, 417-419 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited