OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 12 — Apr. 20, 2007
  • pp: 2286–2291

Effects of optical feedback in a birefringence-Zeeman dual frequency laser at high optical feedback levels

Wei Mao and Shulian Zhang  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 12, pp. 2286-2291 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1081 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Optical feedback effects are studied in a birefringence-Zeeman dual frequency laser at high optical feedback levels. The intensity modulation features of the two orthogonally polarized lights are investigated in both isotropic optical feedback (IOF) and polarized optical feedback (POF). In IOF, the intensities of both beams are modulated simultaneously, and four zones, i.e., the e-light zone, the o-light and e-light zone, the o-light zone, and the no-light zone, are formed in a period corresponding to a half laser wavelength displacement of the feedback mirror. In POF, the two orthogonally polarized lights will oscillate alternately. Strong mode competition can be observed, and it affects the phase difference between the two beams greatly. The theoretical analysis is presented, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The potential use of the experimental results is also discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(140.1340) Lasers and laser optics : Atomic gas lasers
(260.7490) Physical optics : Zeeman effect

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: August 10, 2006
Revised Manuscript: November 20, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: December 12, 2006
Published: April 3, 2007

Wei Mao and Shulian Zhang, "Effects of optical feedback in a birefringence-Zeeman dual frequency laser at high optical feedback levels," Appl. Opt. 46, 2286-2291 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. G. R. King and G. J. Steward, "Metrology with an optical maser," New Sci. 17, 180-182 (1963).
  2. A. Olsson and C. L. Tang, "Coherent optical interference effects in external-cavity semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1320-1323 (1981). [CrossRef]
  3. W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, and A. W. Palmer, "Self-mixing interference in a diode laser: experimental observations and theoretical analysis," Appl. Opt. 32, 1551-1558 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Donati, "Laser interferometry by induced modulation of the cavity field," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 495-497 (1978). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Yu, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, "Measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor of semiconductor laser based on the optical feedback self-mixing effect," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 990-992 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Fei, Y. Li, and X. Zong, "Measurement of small intracavity phase anisotropy in a laser based on optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 249, 255-260 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. G. Giulian, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S283-S294 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Bosch, N. Servagent, and S. Donati, "Optical feedback interferometry for sensing applications," Opt. Eng. 4020-27 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Shinohara, A. Mochizuki, H. Yoshida, and M. Sumi, "Laser Doppler velocimeter using the self-mixing effect of a semiconductor laser diode," Appl. Opt. 25, 1417-1419 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, and W. J. O. Boyle, "Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577-1587 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Hast, L. Krehut, and R. Myllyla, "Displacement sensor based on optical feedback interferometry in a GaN laser diode," Opt. Eng. 44 080504 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. P. de Groot, "Unusual techniques for absolute distance measurement," Opt. Eng. 40, 28-32 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Lu, J. Wang, and K. Deng, "Imaging and profiling surface microstructures with noninterferometric confocal laser feedback," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2022-2024 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347-355 (1980). [CrossRef]
  16. D. Lenstra, V. M. Van, and B. Jaskorzynska, "On the theory of a single-mode laser with weak optical feedback," Physica C. 125, 255-264 (1984). [CrossRef]
  17. P. J. D. Groot, G. M. Gallatin, and S. H. Macomber, "Ranging and velocimetry signal generation in a backscatter-modulated laser diode," Appl. Opt. 27, 4475-448 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Fei, S. Zhang, and X. Wan, "Influence of optical feedback from birefringence external cavity on intensity tuning and polarization of laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1944-1947 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. G. Liu, S. Zhang, L. Li, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "A 450 MHz frequency difference dual-frequency laser with optical feedback," Opt. Commun. 231, 349-356 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. G. Liu, S. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y Li, "Optical feedback laser with a quartz crystal plate in the external cavity," Appl. Opt. 42, 6636-6639 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. W. Mao and S. Zhang, "Analysis for the effects of feedback asymmetry in external cavity He-Ne lasers," Appl. Opt. 45, 7723-7728 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. Fei, S. Zhang, Y. Li, and J. Zhu, "Polarization control in a He-Ne laser using birefringence feedback," Opt. Express 13, 3117-3122 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. Mao, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Y. Li, "Optical feedback characteristics in He-Ne dual frequency lasers," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 1188-1191 (2006). [CrossRef]
  24. R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672-2676 (1996). [CrossRef]
  25. D. Guo, M. Wang, and S. Tan, "Self-mixing interferometer based on sinusoidal phase modulating technique," Opt. Express 13, 1537-1543 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited