OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2007
  • pp: 2423–2433

Aberration production using a high-resolution liquid-crystal spatial light modulator

Jason D. Schmidt, Matthew E. Goda, and Bradley D. Duncan  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 13, pp. 2423-2433 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1332 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Phase-only liquid-crystal spatial light modulators provide a powerful means of wavefront control. With high resolution and diffractive (modulo 2 π ) operation, they can accurately represent large-dynamic-range phase maps. As a result, they provide an excellent means of producing electrically controllable, dynamic, and repeatable aberrations. However, proper calibration is critical to achieving accurate phase maps. Several calibration methods from previous literature were considered. With simplicity and accuracy in mind, we selected one method for each type of necessary calibration. We augmented one of the selected methods with a new step that improves its accuracy. After calibrating our spatial light modulator with our preferred methods, we evaluated its ability to produce aberrations in the laboratory. We studied Zernike polynomial aberrations using interferometry and Fourier-transform-plane images, and atmospheric aberrations using a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor. These measurements show the closest agreement with theoretical expectations that we have seen to date.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1330) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric turbulence
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices
(230.6120) Optical devices : Spatial light modulators

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: October 19, 2006
Revised Manuscript: December 19, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: December 22, 2006
Published: April 9, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Jason D. Schmidt, Matthew E. Goda, and Bradley D. Duncan, "Aberration production using a high-resolution liquid-crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 46, 2423-2433 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. T. Gruneisen, L. F. DeSandre, J. R. Rotge, R. C. Dymale, and D. L. Lubin, "Programmable diffractive optics for wide-dynamic-range wavefront control using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," Opt. Eng. 43, 1387-1393 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Harriman, A. Linnenberger, and S. Serati, "Improving spatial light modulator performance through phase compensation," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications II, M. T. Gruneisen, J. D. Gonglewski, and M. K. Giles, eds., Proc. SPIE 5553, 58-67 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. Boulder Nonlinear Systems, User Manual: 512x512 SLM System, 2nd ed. (2003).
  4. M. K. Giles, A. Seward, M. A. Vorontsov, J. Raha, and R. Jimenez, "Setting up a liquid-crystal phase screen to simulate atmospheric turbulence," in High-Resolution Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications II, M. T. Gruneisen, J. D. Gonglewski, and M. A. Vorontsov, eds., Proc. SPIE 4124, 89-97 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Zhang, G. Lu, and F. T. Yu, "Simple method for measuring phase modulation in liquid crystal televisions," Opt. Eng. 33, 3018-3022 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Harris, "Characterization and application of a liquid crystal beam steering device," in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies for Integrated Photonic Systems, R. L. Sutherland, D. W. Prather, and I. Cindrich, eds., Proc. SPIE 4291 , 109-119 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. R. J. Brecha and J. M. O'Hare, Optical Radiation and Matter, unpublished book used as a text at University of Dayton (2004).
  8. D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).
  9. R. Fletcher, Practical Methods of Optimization, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2000).
  10. MATLAB R2006a The MathWorks (2006), http://www.mathworks.com.
  11. D. Malacara, Interferogram Analysis for Optical Testing, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2005).
  12. J. D. Mansell, A. A. Jacobs, and M. Maynard, "Development of an adaptive optics test-bed for relay mirror applications," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications III, M. T. Gruneisen, J. D. Gonglewski, and M. K. Giles, eds., Proc. SPIE 5894, 589401 (2005).
  13. N. W. Hart, "Characterizing static aberrations of liquid crystal spatial light modulators," M.S. thesis (Michigan Technological University, 2005).
  14. S. Bishop and W. Bishop, Elementary Linear Algebra, 4th ed. (Brooks-Cole, 1996).
  15. R. Noll, "Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207-211 (1976).
  16. M. C. Roggemann and B. Welsh, Imaging Through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).
  17. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  18. D. C. Dayton, S. L. Browne, S. P. Sandven, J. D. Gonglewski, and A. V. Kudryashov, "Theory and laboratory demonstrations on the use of a nematic liquid-crystal phase modulator for controlled turbulence generation and adaptive optics," Appl. Opt. 37, 5579-5589 (1998).
  19. J. D. Widiker and E. P. Magee, "Open-loop simulations of atmospheric turbulence using the AdAPS interface," in Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications III, M. T. Gruneisen, J. D. Gonglewski, and M. K. Giles, eds., Proc. SPIE 5894, 589404 (2005).
  20. S. F. Clifford, "The classical theory of wave propagation in a turbulent medium," in Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, J. W. Strohbehn, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1978).
  21. R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1998).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited