OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 14 — May. 10, 2007
  • pp: 2563–2574

Modeling, design, fabrication, and testing of a fiber Bragg grating strain sensor array

Abdeq M. Abdi, Shigeru Suzuki, Axel Schülzgen, and Alan R. Kost  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 14, pp. 2563-2574 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (967 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The modeling, design, simulation, fabrication, calibration, and testing of a three-element, 15.3   cm fiber Bragg grating strain sensor array with the coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry (C-OFDR) interrogation technique are demonstrated. The fiber Bragg grating array (FBGA) is initially simulated using in-house software that incorporates transfer matrices. Compared to the previous techniques used, the transfer matrix method allows a systemwide approach to modeling the FBGA–C-OFDR system. Once designed and simulated, the FBGA system design is then imprinted into the core of a boron–germanium codoped photosensitive fiber using the phase mask technique. A fiber optic Fabry–Perot interferometric (FPI) strain gauge calibrator is then used to determine the strain gauge factor of a single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and the results are used on the FBGA. The FPI strain gauge calibrator offers nondestructive testing of the FBG. To test the system, the FBGA is then attached to a 75   cm cantilever beam and interrogated using an incremental tunable laser. Electric strain gauges (ESGs) are then used to independently verify the strain measurements with the FBGA at various displacements of the cantilever beam. The results show that the peak strain error is 18% with respect to ESG results. In addition, good agreement is shown between the simulation and the experimental results.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(070.6020) Fourier optics and signal processing : Continuous optical signal processing

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: September 19, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: January 7, 2007
Published: April 23, 2007

Abdeq M. Abdi, Shigeru Suzuki, Axel Schülzgen, and Alan R. Kost, "Modeling, design, fabrication, and testing of a fiber Bragg grating strain sensor array," Appl. Opt. 46, 2563-2574 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Froggatt, "Distributed measurement of the complex modulation of a photo-induced Bragg grating in an optical fiber," Appl. Opt. 35, 5162-5164 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. A. Childers, T. L. Brown, J. P. Moore, and K. H. Wood, "Recent developments in the application of optical frequency domain reflectometry to distributed Bragg grating sensing," Proc. SPIE 4578, 19-31 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. R. G. Duncan, B. A. Childers, D. K. Gifford, D. E. Petti, A. W. Hickson, and T. L. Brown, "Distributed sensing technique for test article damage detection and monitoring," Proc. SPIE 5050, 367-375 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Abdi and A. R. Kost, "Theoretical suppression of cavity interferences in a fiber Bragg grating array interrogated with coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry," Smart Mater. Struct. 15, 1296-1304 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Froggatt and J. Moore, "Distributed measurement of static strain in an optical fiber with multiple Bragg gratings at nominally equal wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 37, 1741-1746 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. A. C. Brooks, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, Sr., D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten, and D. C. Jegley, "Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure," Proc. SPIE 4332, 133-142 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1996).
  8. R. M. Measures, Structural Monitoring with Fiber Optic Technology (Academic, 2001).
  9. A. T. Alavie, R Maaskant, R. Stubbe, A. Othonos, M. Ohn, B. Sahlgren, and R. M. Measures, "Characterization of fiber Bragg grating sensors and their relation to manufacturing technique," Proc. SPIE 2444, 528-535 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Abdi and A. Kost, "Infrastructure optics," Proc. SPIE 5384, 218-228 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. E. Udd, Fiber Optic Smart Structures (Wiley, 1995).
  12. A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1998).
  13. M. del Vries, M. Nasta, V. Bhatia, T. Tran, J. Greene, and R. O. Claus, "Performance of embedded fatigue loaded reinforced concrete specimen," Smart Mater. Struct. 4, A107-A113 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. R. Passy, N. Gision, J. P. von der Weid, and H. Gilgen, "Experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1622-1630 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. G. A. Sidney, R. L. Fox, M. E. Froggatt, and B. A. Childers, "Novel piezoelectric actuators for tuning an optical fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Eng. 41, 2448-2455 (2002). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited