OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 2007
  • pp: 3304–3310

Birefringence-induced bifocusing for selection of radially or azimuthally polarized laser modes

Galina Machavariani, Yaakov Lumer, Inon Moshe, Avi Meir, Steven Jackel, and Nir Davidson  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 16, pp. 3304-3310 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (703 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We develop a round-trip matrix diagonalization method for quantitative description of selection of radially or azimuthally polarized beams by birefringence-induced bifocusing in a simple laser resonator. We employ different focusing between radially and tangentially polarized light in thermally stressed laser rods to obtain low-loss stable oscillation in a radially polarized Laguerre–Gaussian, LG ( 0 , 1 ) * , mode. We derive a free-space propagator for the radially and azimuthally polarized LG ( 0 , 1 ) * modes and explain basic principles of mode selection by use of a round-trip matrix diagonalization method. Within this method we calculate round-trip diffraction losses and intensity distributions for the lowest-loss transverse modes. We show that, for the considered laser configuration, the round-trip loss obtained for the radially polarized LG ( 0 , 1 ) * mode is significantly smaller than that of the azimuthally polarized mode. Our experimental results, obtained with a diode side-pumped Nd:YAG rod in a flat–convex resonator, confirm the theoretical predictions. We achieved a pure radially polarized LG ( 0 , 1 ) * beam with M 2 = 2.5 and tens of watts of output power.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: December 19, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: February 5, 2007
Published: May 15, 2007

Galina Machavariani, Yaakov Lumer, Inon Moshe, Avi Meir, Steven Jackel, and Nir Davidson, "Birefringence-induced bifocusing for selection of radially or azimuthally polarized laser modes," Appl. Opt. 46, 3304-3310 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, "Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency," J. Phys. D 32, 1455-1461 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Nesterov and V. G. Niziev, "Laser beams with axially symmetric polarization," J. Phys. D 33, 1817-1822 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Zhan and J. Leger, "Focus shaping using cylindrical vector beams," Opt. Express 10, 324-331 (2002). [PubMed]
  4. Q. Zhan, "Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization," Opt. Express 12, 3377-3382 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, "Vacuum laser acceleration using a radially polarized CO2 laser beam," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 424, 296-303 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. Davidson and N. Bokor, "High-numerical-aperture focusing of radially polarized doughnut beams with a parabolic mirror and a flat diffractive lens," Opt. Lett. 29, 1318-1320 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, "Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251-5254 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. C. Tidwell, D. H. Ford, and W. D. Kimura, "Generating radially polarized beams interferometrically," Appl. Opt. 29, 2234-2239 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, "The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322-3324 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Armstrong, M. C. Phillips, and A. V. Smith, "Generation of radially polarized beams with an image-rotating resonator," Appl. Opt. 42, 3550-3554 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. V. Nesterov, V. G. Niziev, and V. P. Yakunin, "Generation of high-power radially polarized beam," J. Phys. D 32, 2871-2875 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Moser, M. A. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and Th. Graf, "Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 234-236 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc. IEEE 60, 1107-1109 (1972). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, "Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of a conical Brewster prism," Opt. Lett. 30, 3063-3065 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. A. Tovar, "Production and propagation of cylindrically polarized Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2705-2711 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. D. Pohl, "Operation of a ruby laser in the purely transverse electric mode TE01," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266-267 (1972). [CrossRef]
  18. I. Moshe, S. Jackel, and A. Meir, "Production of radially or azimuthally polarized beams in solid-state lasers and the elimination of thermally induced birefringence effects," Opt. Lett. 28, 807-809 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. S. Roth, E. W. Wyss, H. Glur, and H. P. Weber, "Generation of radially polarized beams in a Nd:YAG laser with self-adaptive overcompensation of the thermal lens," Opt. Lett. 30, 1665-1667 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Deng, "Nonparaxial propagation of radially polarized light beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1228-1234 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  22. H. Kogelnik and T. Li, "Laser beams and resonators," Proc. IEEE 54, 1312-1329 (1966). [CrossRef]
  23. D. Ehrlichmann, U. Habich, and H.-D. Plum, "Azimuthal mode discrimination of annular resonators," Appl. Opt. 32, 6582-6586 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. M. Osterink and J. D. Foster, "Thermal effects and transverse mode control in a Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 128-131 (1968). [CrossRef]
  25. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 5th ed. (Springer, 1999).
  26. W. Koechner, "Thermal lensing in a Nd:YAG rod," Appl. Opt. 9, 2548-2553 (1970). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. I. Moshe and S. Jackel, "Influence of birefringence-induced bifocusing on optical beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1228-1235 (2005). [CrossRef]
  28. T. Li, "Diffraction loss and selection of modes in maser resonators with circular mirrors," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 917-932 (1965).
  29. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1981).
  30. R. Oron, N. Davidson, E. Hasman, and A. A. Friesem, "Transverse mode shaping and selection in laser resonators," in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2001), Vol. 42, pp. 325-385. [CrossRef]
  31. A. E. Siegman, "New developments in laser resonators," Proc. SPIE 1224, 2-14 (1990). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited