OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 2007
  • pp: 3958–3968

Widely tunable rapid-scanning mid-infrared laser spectrometer for industrial gas process stream analysis

Douglas J. Bamford, David J. Cook, Scott J. Sharpe, and Aaron D. Van Pelt  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 19, pp. 3958-3968 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (993 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A mid-infrared spectrometer with a tuning range of > 400 cm 1 in the C–H stretching region of the spectrum has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer is based on the difference-frequency generation of two tunable diode lasers in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides. Tuning is achieved by varying a single parameter, the wavelength of one of the near-infrared input lasers. The instrument can be tuned over the entire tuning range in less than 1 s. By taking advantage of the wide tuning range, the instrument has been used to analyze a mixture of methane, ethylene, and propylene. Each of these major components was measured with an accuracy of better than 2% (where the error is defined as a percentage of the measured value) in a single 30 s long scan. When optimized, the spectrometer has the potential to meet both the performance requirements and the practical requirements for real-time process control in petrochemical manufacturing. The general principles for the design of mid-infrared spectrometers with wide tuning ranges are explained, including the use of variable waveguide fabrication recipes to create broad phase-matching resonances (which lead to broad tuning) in the desired location.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing

ToC Category:
Absorption and Cavity-Based Techniques

Original Manuscript: October 3, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: January 23, 2007
Published: June 12, 2007

Douglas J. Bamford, David J. Cook, Scott J. Sharpe, and Aaron D. Van Pelt, "Widely tunable rapid-scanning mid-infrared laser spectrometer for industrial gas process stream analysis," Appl. Opt. 46, 3958-3968 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. Töpfer, K. P. Petrov, Y. Mine, D. Jundt, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, "Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection," Appl. Opt. 36, 8042-8049 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 39, 4444-4450 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Richter and P. Weibring, "Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B 82, 479-486 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Timmermans and H. Morgenstern, "Method and apparatus for controlling severity of cracking operations by near-infrared analysis in the gas phase using fiber optics," U.S. patent 6,512,156 (28 January 2003).
  5. Y. Z. Friedman, "Advanced control of ethylene plants: what works, what doesn"t, and why," Hydrocarbon Asia, July/August 1999, available at www.petrocontrol.com.
  6. L. Goldberg, W. K. Burns, and R. W. McElhanon, "Wide acceptance bandwidth difference frequency generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2910-2912 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Yanagawa, H. Kanbara, O. Tadanage, M. Asobe, H. Suzuki, and J. Yumoto, "Broadband difference frequency generation around phase-match singularity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161106 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. D. H. Jundt, "Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 22, 1553-1555 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Field, L. Huang, K. Wolfe, D. Bamford, and D. Deacon, "Fabrication of bulk and waveguide PPLN for the generation of wavelengths from 460 nm to 4.3 microns," in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers: Applications and Issues, M. W. Dowley, ed. (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 87-92.
  10. J. L. Jackel, E. E. Rice, and J. J. Veselda, "Proton exchange for high index waveguide in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607-609 (1982). [CrossRef]
  11. M. L. Bortz and M. M. Fejer, "Annealed proton exchange LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 16, 1844-1846 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Roussev, X. Xie, K. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, and J. Tian, "Accurate semi-empirical model for annealed proton exchanged waveguides in z-cut lithium niobate," IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (IEEE 2003).
  13. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1975), Chap. 13.
  14. K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385-391 (1985). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Roussev, A. Sridharan, K. Urbanek, R. Byer, and M. Fejer, "Parametric amplification of 1.6 μm signal in anneal- and reverse-proton exchanged waveguides," IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2003).
  16. K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thorns, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, "Efficient difference-frequency mixing of diode lasers in lithium niobate channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 7, 777-782 (2000).
  17. S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Roderick, and P. A. Johnson, "Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452-1461 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993). [CrossRef]
  19. K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, "Highly efficient SHG in buried waveguides formed using annealed and reverse proton exchange in PPLN," Opt. Lett. 27, 179-181 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. R. Roussev, S. Sinha, K. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and M. M. Fejer, "Efficient mid-infrared difference-frequency generation in reverse proton-exchanged PPLN waveguides," Stanford Photonics Research Center Annual Meeting, Stanford, Calif. (2006).
  21. C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, and W. L. Brown, "Measurement of the deuterium concentration profile in a deuterium-exchanged LiNbO3 crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4437-4440 (1985). [CrossRef]
  22. O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, "Efficient 3-μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited