OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 2 — Jan. 10, 2007
  • pp: 227–233

Fixed holograms in iron-doped lithium niobate: simultaneous self-stabilized recording and compensation

Jaime Frejlich, Ivan de Oliveira, Luis Arizmendi, and Mercedes Carrascosa  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 2, pp. 227-233 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.000227


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (747 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We analyze the mechanisms leading to a highly diffractive fixed hologram in photorefractive Fe-doped lithium niobate crystals by simultaneous self-stabilized holographic recording and compensation at moderately high temperatures. We show that a partially compensated running hologram is produced during recording under this condition and discuss the performance of the process in terms of the operating temperature, the degree of oxidation ( [ Fe 3+ ] / [ Fe 2+ ] ratio) of the sample, and the effect of the absorption grating arising from the spatial modulation of the Fe 2+ concentration produced during photorefractive recording. We experimentally measure the evolution of the uncompensated remaining hologram during recording and the evolution of the diffraction efficiency of the fixed hologram during white-light development and show that the maximum fixed grating modulation to be achieved is roughly limited by Fe-dopant saturation. A reproducible η 66 % efficiency fixed grating was obtained on a sample exhibiting an otherwise maximum fixed η 3 % when using the classical three-step (recording at room temperature—compensating at high temperature—developing at room temperature) process.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.2890) Holography : Holographic optical elements
(090.2900) Holography : Optical storage materials
(090.7330) Holography : Volume gratings
(160.2900) Materials : Optical storage materials
(160.3730) Materials : Lithium niobate

ToC Category:
Holography

History
Original Manuscript: June 27, 2006
Revised Manuscript: August 31, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: September 7, 2006

Citation
Jaime Frejlich, Ivan de Oliveira, Luis Arizmendi, and Mercedes Carrascosa, "Fixed holograms in iron-doped lithium niobate: simultaneous self-stabilized recording and compensation," Appl. Opt. 46, 227-233 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-2-227


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. Amodei and D. Staebler, "Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540-542 (1971). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Carrascosa and F. Agullo-Lopez, "Theoretical modelling of the fixing and developing of holographic gratings in LiNbO3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2317-2322 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Yariv and S. S. Orlov, "Holographic storage dynamics in lithium niobate: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2513-2523 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Méndez and L. Arizmendi, "Maximum diffraction efficiency of fixed holograms in lithium niobate," Opt. Mater. 10, 55-59 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. E. M. Miguel, J. Limeres, M. Carrascosa, and L. Arizmendi, "Study of developing thermal fixed holograms in lithium niobate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1140-1146 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. I. de Oliveira, J. Frejlich, L. Arizmendi, and M. Carrascosa, "Holographic phase shift measurement during development of a fixed grating in lithium niobate crystals," Opt. Lett. 28, 1040-1042 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. de Oliveira, J. Frejlich, L. Arizmendi, and M. Carrascosa, "Nearly 100% diffraction efficiency fixed holograms in oxidized iron-doped LiNbO3 crystals using self-stabilized recording technique," Opt. Commun. 247, 39-48 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. I. de Oliveira, J. Frejlich, L. Arizmendi, and M. Carrascosa, "Self-stabilized holographic recording in reduced and oxidized lithium niobate crystals," Opt. Commun. 229, 371-380 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Breer, K. Buse, K. Peithmann, H. Vogt, and E. Krätzig, "Stabilized recording and thermal fixing of holograms in photorefractive lithium niobate crystals," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1591-1594 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. B. I. Sturman, M. Carrascosa, F. Agullo-Lopez, and J. Limeres, "Theory of high-temperature photorefractive phenomena in LiNbO3 crystals and applications to experiment," Phys. Rev. B 57, 12792-12805 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Frejlich, P. M. Garcia, K. H. Ringhofer, and E. Shamonina, "Phase modulation in two-wave mixing for dynamically recorded gratings in photorefractive materials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1741-1749 (1997). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).
  13. M. Barbosa, I. de Oliveira, and J. Frejlich, "Feedback operation for fringe-locked photorefractive running hologram," Opt. Commun. 201, 293-299 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Kurz, E. Krätzig, W. Keune, H. Engelmann, U. Gonser, B. Dischler, and A. Räuber, "Photorefractive centers in LiNbO3, studied by optical-, Mössbauer-, and EPR-methods," Appl. Phys. A 12, 355-368 (1977).
  15. H. Vormann, G. Weber, S. Kapphan, and E. Krätzig, "Hydrogen as origin of thermal fixing in LiNbO3:Fe," Solid State Commun. 40, 543-545 (1981). [CrossRef]
  16. I. de Oliveira and J. Frejlich, "Diffraction efficiency measurement in photorefractive thick volume holograms," J. Opt. A 5, S428-S431 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 3rd international ed. (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1985).
  18. Y. Yang, I. Nee, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, "Mechanism of dark decay of holograms in lithium niobate crystals," in Photorefractive Effects, Materials and Devices,D. D. Nolte, G. J. Salamo, A. Siahmakoun, and S. Stepanov, eds., Vol. 62 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 144-151.
  19. I. Nee, M. Müller, K. Buse, and E. Krätzig, "Role of iron in lithium-niobate crystals for the dark-storage time of holograms," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4282-4286 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, Vol. 61 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited