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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 2 — Jan. 10, 2007
  • pp: 227–233

Fixed holograms in iron-doped lithium niobate: simultaneous self-stabilized recording and compensation

Jaime Frejlich, Ivan de Oliveira, Luis Arizmendi, and Mercedes Carrascosa  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 2, pp. 227-233 (2007)

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We analyze the mechanisms leading to a highly diffractive fixed hologram in photorefractive Fe-doped lithium niobate crystals by simultaneous self-stabilized holographic recording and compensation at moderately high temperatures. We show that a partially compensated running hologram is produced during recording under this condition and discuss the performance of the process in terms of the operating temperature, the degree of oxidation ( [ Fe 3+ ] / [ Fe 2+ ] ratio) of the sample, and the effect of the absorption grating arising from the spatial modulation of the Fe 2+ concentration produced during photorefractive recording. We experimentally measure the evolution of the uncompensated remaining hologram during recording and the evolution of the diffraction efficiency of the fixed hologram during white-light development and show that the maximum fixed grating modulation to be achieved is roughly limited by Fe-dopant saturation. A reproducible η 66 % efficiency fixed grating was obtained on a sample exhibiting an otherwise maximum fixed η 3 % when using the classical three-step (recording at room temperature—compensating at high temperature—developing at room temperature) process.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.2890) Holography : Holographic optical elements
(090.2900) Holography : Optical storage materials
(090.7330) Holography : Volume gratings
(160.2900) Materials : Optical storage materials
(160.3730) Materials : Lithium niobate

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: June 27, 2006
Revised Manuscript: August 31, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: September 7, 2006

Jaime Frejlich, Ivan de Oliveira, Luis Arizmendi, and Mercedes Carrascosa, "Fixed holograms in iron-doped lithium niobate: simultaneous self-stabilized recording and compensation," Appl. Opt. 46, 227-233 (2007)

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