OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 20 — Jul. 10, 2007
  • pp: 4329–4340

Distributed modal command for a two-deformable-mirror adaptive optics system

R. Conan, C. Bradley, P. Hampton, O. Keskin, A. Hilton, and C. Blain  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 20, pp. 4329-4340 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3267 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The design of future single-altitude conjugated adaptive optics (AO) systems may include at least two deformable mirrors (DMs) instead of one as in the current AO system. Each DM will have to correct for a specific spatial frequency range. A method is presented to derive a DM modal basis based on the influence functions of the DM. The modal bases are derived such that they are orthogonal to a given set of modes that restrict the DM correction to a spatial frequency domain. The modal bases have been tested on the woofer–tweeter test bench at the University of Victoria. It has been shown that the rms amplitude of the woofer DM and tweeter DM stroke can be reduced by factors of 3 and 9, respectively, when making the transition from a zonal-driven closed loop to a modal-driven closed loop with the same performance in both cases.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.2190) General : Experimental physics
(000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(010.7350) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Wave-front sensing

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and ocean optics

Original Manuscript: October 24, 2006
Revised Manuscript: April 10, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: April 14, 2007
Published: June 20, 2007

R. Conan, C. Bradley, P. Hampton, O. Keskin, A. Hilton, and C. Blain, "Distributed modal command for a two-deformable-mirror adaptive optics system," Appl. Opt. 46, 4329-4340 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Roggemann and D. Lee, "Two-deformable-mirror concept for correcting scintillation effects in laser beam projection through the turbulent atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 37, 4577-4585 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Barchers, "Application of the parallel generalized projection algorithm to the control of two finite-resolution deformable mirrors for scintillation compensation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 54-63 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Barchers, "Closed-loop stable control of two deformable mirrors for compensation of amplitude and phase fluctuations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 926-945 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Barchers, "Convergence rates for iterative vector space projection methods for control of two deformable mirrors for compensation of both amplitude and phase fluctuations," Appl. Opt. 41, 2213-2218 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Baumhacker, G. Pretzler, K. J. Witte, M. Hegelich, M. Kaluza, S. Karsch, A. Kudryashov, V. Samarkin, and A. Roukossouev, "Correction of strong phase and amplitude modulations by two deformable mirrors in a multistaged Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 1570-1572 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. B. Ellerbroek, "First-order performance evaluation of adaptiveoptics systems for atmospheric-turbulence compensation in extended-field-of-view astronomical telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 783-805 (1994). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Fusco, J. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michan, "Optimal wave-front reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527-2538 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. F. Rigaut, "Atmospheric tomography with multi-conjugate adaptive optics," in Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Vol. 67 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001).
  9. R. C. Flicker, "Sequence of phase correction in multiconjugate adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 26, 1743-1745 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Le Louarn, "Multi-conjugate adaptive optics with laser guide stars: performance in the infrared and visible," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 334, 865-874 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Hu, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Hou, J. Wu, and W. Jiang, "Double-deformable-mirror concept for correcting scintillation effects in laser beam projection through the turbulent atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 45, 2638-2642 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, "Hot-air optical turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization," Appl. Opt. 45, 4888-4897 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. Cugat, S. Basrour, C. Divoux, P. Mounaix, and G. Reyne, "Deformable magnetic mirror for adaptive optics: technological aspects," Sens. Actuators A 89, 1-9 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. http://www.alpao.fr/.
  15. W. J. Vetter, "Derivative operations on matrices," IEEE Trans. Auto. Control 15, 241-244 (1970). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Noll, "Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207-211 (1976). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Beckers, P. Lena, O. Lai, P. Madec, G. Rousset, M. Sechand, M. Northcott, F. Roddier, J. Beuzit, F. Rigaut, and D. Sandler, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited