OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 21 — Jul. 20, 2007
  • pp: 4594–4603

Characteristics of infrared imaging systems that benefit from superresolution reconstruction

Keith Krapels, Ronald G. Driggers, Eddie Jacobs, Stephen Burks, and Susan Young  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 21, pp. 4594-4603 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2146 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



There have been numerous applications of superresolution reconstruction algorithms to improve the range performance of infrared imagers. These studies show there can be a dramatic improvement in range performance when superresolution algorithms are applied to undersampled imager outputs. These occur when the imager is moving relative to the target, which creates different spatial samplings of the field of view for each frame. The degree of performance benefit is dependent on the relative sizes of the detector∕spacing and the optical blur spot in focal plane space. The minimum blur spot size achievable on the focal plane is dependent on the system F∕number. Hence, we provide a range of these sensor characteristics, for which there is a benefit from superresolution reconstruction algorithms. Additionally, we quantify the potential performance improvements associated with these algorithms. We also provide three infrared sensor examples to show the range of improvements associated with provided guidelines.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.3080) Imaging systems : Infrared imaging
(110.4100) Imaging systems : Modulation transfer function
(110.6820) Imaging systems : Thermal imaging

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: October 11, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: March 20, 2007
Published: July 6, 2007

Keith Krapels, Ronald G. Driggers, Eddie Jacobs, Stephen Burks, and Susan Young, "Characteristics of infrared imaging systems that benefit from superresolution reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 46, 4594-4603 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Schuler, "Superresolution," in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering (Dekker, 2002).
  2. J. M. Schuler, J. G. Howard, P. R. Warren, and D. A. Scribner, "TARID-based image super-resolution," Proc. SPIE 4719, 247-254 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Schuler, J. G. Howard, P. R. Warren, and D. A. Scribner, "Resolution enhancement through TARID processing," Proc. SPIE 4671, 872-876 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Schuler, J. G. Howard, D. A. Scribner, P. R. Warren, R. B. Klein, M. P. Satyshur, and M. R. Kruer, "Resolution enhancement through a temporal accumulation of registered video," Proc. SPIE 4372, 137-142 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Schuler and D. A. Scribner, "Chapter 6: dynamic sampling, resolution enhancement, and super resolution," in Analysis of Sampled Imaging Systems (SPIE2000).
  6. J. Schuler, D. A. Scribner, and M. R. Kruer, "Alias reduction and resolution enhancement by a temporal accumulation of registered data from focal plane arrays," Proc. SPIE 4041, 94-102 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Schuler and D. A. Scribner, "Increasing spatial resolution through temporal super-sampling of digital video," Opt. Eng. 38, 801-805 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Schuler, D. A. Scribner, and M. R. Kruer, "Super sampling of digital video," in Proceedings of the 1999 Meeting of the IRIS Passive Sensors, Feb. 1999.
  9. J. Schuler, D. A. Scribner, and M. R. Kruer, "Super resolution imagery from multi-frame sequences with random motion," in Proceedings of the 1998 Meeting of the IRIS Specialty Group on Passive Sensors, March 1998.
  10. R. G. Driggers, K. A. Krapels, and S. S. Young, "The meaning of super-resolution," Proc. SPIE 5784, 103-106 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. S. S. Young, "Alias-free image subsampling using Fourier-based windowing methods," Opt. Eng. 43, 843-855 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Kang and S. Chaudhuri, "Super-resolution image reconstruction," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20, 19-20 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. R. H. Vollmerhausen and R. G. Driggers, Analysis of Sampled Imaging Systems, SPIE Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering (SPIE, 2000), Vol. TT39 [note chapter on superresolution by D. Scribner and J. Schuler]. [CrossRef]
  14. R. H. Vollmerhausen, R. G. Driggers, and B. L. O'Kane, "Influence of sampling on target recognition and identification," Opt. Eng. 38, 763-772 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. J. M. Wiltse and J. I. Miller, "Imagery improvements in staring infrared imagers by employing subpixel microscan," Opt. Eng. 44, 056401 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. G. Armstrong, "Dual-waveband MWIR/visible three-axis stabilized sensor suite for submarine optronics masts," Proc. SPIE 3436, 676-684 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. K. Krapels, R. G. Driggers, R. Vollmerhausen, and C. E. Halford, "Performance comparison of rectangular (4-point) and diagonal (2-point) dither in under-sampled IRFPA imagers," Appl. Opt. 40, 101-112 (2001).
  18. R. G. Driggers, K. A. Krapels, S. Murrill, S. S. Young, M. Thielke, and J. Schuler, "Superresolution performance for undersampled imagers," Opt. Eng. 44, 014002 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, "TOD, a new method to characterize electro-optical system performance," Proc. SPIE 3377, 182-193 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, "TOD, the alternative to MRTD and MRC," Opt. Eng. 37, 1984-1994 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. P. Bijl and J. M. Valeton, "Guidelines for accurate TOD measurement," Proc. SPIE 3701, 14-25 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. E. Jacobs, R. G. Driggers, S. Young, K. A. Krapels, G. Tener, and J. Park, "NVThermIP modeling of super-resolution algorithms," Proc. SPIE 5784, 125-135 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited