OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 21 — Jul. 20, 2007
  • pp: 4694–4701

Digital color image watermarking based on phase-shifting interferometry and neighboring pixel value subtraction algorithm in the discrete-cosine-transform domain

Xiang-Feng Meng, Lu-Zhong Cai, Xiu-Lun Yang, Xian-Feng Xu, Guo-Yan Dong, Xiao-Xia Shen, Hao Zhang, and Yu-Rong Wang  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 21, pp. 4694-4701 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.004694


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2302 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A novel single-channel color-image watermarking with digital-optics means based on phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and a neighboring pixel value subtraction algorithm in the discrete-cosine-transform (DCT) domain is proposed. The converted two-dimensional indexed image matrix from an original color image is encrypted to four interferograms by a PSI and double random-phase encoding technique. Then the interferograms are embedded in one chosen channel of an enlarged color host image in the DCT domain. The hidden color image can be retrieved by DCT, the improved neighboring pixel value subtraction algorithm, an inverse encryption process, and color image format conversion. The feasibility of this method and its robustness against some types of distortion and attacks from the superposed image with different weighting factors are verified and analyzed by computer simulations. This approach can avoid the cross-talk noise due to direct information superposition, enhance the imperceptibility of hidden data, and improve the efficiency of data transmission.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.2890) Holography : Holographic optical elements
(100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
(100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques

ToC Category:
Image Processing

History
Original Manuscript: January 9, 2007
Revised Manuscript: March 27, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: April 21, 2007
Published: July 6, 2007

Citation
Xiang-Feng Meng, Lu-Zhong Cai, Xiu-Lun Yang, Xian-Feng Xu, Guo-Yan Dong, Xiao-Xia Shen, Hao Zhang, and Yu-Rong Wang, "Digital color image watermarking based on phase-shifting interferometry and neighboring pixel value subtraction algorithm in the discrete-cosine-transform domain," Appl. Opt. 46, 4694-4701 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-21-4694


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. P. Refrégier and B. Javidi, "Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding," Opt. Lett. 20, 767-769 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Javidi, Optical and Digital Techniques for Information Security (Springer, 2005). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Kishk and B. Javidi, "Information hiding technique with double phase encoding," Appl. Opt. 41, 5462-5470 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. N. Takai and Y. Mifune, "Digital watermarking by a holographic technique," Appl. Opt. 41, 865-873 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. O. Matoba and B. Javidi, "Encrypted optical memory system using three-dimensional keys in the Fresnel domain," Opt. Lett. 24, 762-764 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Nomura, S. Mikan, Y. Morimoto, and B. Javidi, "Secure optical data storage with random phase key codes by use of a configuration of a joint transform correlator," Appl. Opt. 42, 1508-1514 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, "Encrypting three dimensional information with digital holography," Appl. Opt. 39, 6595-6601 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, and K. Singh, "Optical encryption by double-random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain," Opt. Lett. 25, 887-889 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Hennelly and J. T. Sheridan, "Optical image encryption by random shifting in fractional Fourier domains," Opt. Lett. 28, 269-271 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Encryption of digital hologram of 3-D object by virtual optics," Opt. Express 12, 4912-4921 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Z. Cai, M. Z. He, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, "Digital image encryption and watermarking by phase-shifting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 43, 3078-3084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Situ and J. Zhang, "Image hiding with computer-generated phase codes for optical authentication," Opt. Commun. 245, 55-65 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. H. T. Chang and C. L. Tsan, "Image watermarking by use of digital holography embedded in the discrete-cosine-transform domain," Appl. Opt. 44, 6211-6219 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Zhou and J. G. Chen, "Information hiding based on double-random phase encoding technology," J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1777-1783 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. L. Chen and D. Zhao, "Optical color image encryption by wavelength multiplexing and lensless Fresnel transform holograms," Opt. Express 14, 8552-8560 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Zhang and M. A. Karim, "Color image encryption using double random phase encoding," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 21, 318-323 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Nicolas, C. Lemmi, J. Compos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Optical encoding of color three-dimensional correlation," Opt. Commun. 209, 35-43 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. F. Xu, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, G. Y. Dong, and Y. R. Wang, "Two-step phase-shifting interferometry and its application in image encryption," Opt. Lett. 31, 1414-1416 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, "Phase-shift extraction and wave-front reconstruction in phase-shifting interferometry with arbitrary phase steps," Opt. Lett. 28, 1808-1810 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, "Information security system by iterative multiple-phase retrieval and pixel random permutation," Appl. Opt. 45, 3289-3297 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Z. He, L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, "Phase-only encryption and watermarking based on phase-shifting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 44, 2600-2606 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Shi, G. Situ, and J. Zhang, "Optical image hiding in the Fresnel domain," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 569-577 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited