OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 22 — Aug. 1, 2007
  • pp: 5051–5055

Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide

Andriy A. Danylov, Jerry Waldman, Thomas M. Goyette, Andrew J. Gatesman, Robert H. Giles, Kurt J. Linden, William R. Neal, William E. Nixon, Michael C. Wanke, and John L. Reno  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 22, pp. 5051-5055 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.005051


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1483 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate that a short hollow dielectric tube can act as a dielectric waveguide and transform the multimode, highly diverging terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into the lowest order dielectric waveguide hybrid mode, EH 11 , which then couples efficiently to the free-space Gaussian mode, TEM 00 . This simple approach should enable terahertz quantum cascade lasers to be employed in applications where a spatially coherent beam is required.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 5, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: April 25, 2007
Published: July 9, 2007

Citation
Andriy A. Danylov, Jerry Waldman, Thomas M. Goyette, Andrew J. Gatesman, Robert H. Giles, Kurt J. Linden, William R. Neal, William E. Nixon, Michael C. Wanke, and John L. Reno, "Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide," Appl. Opt. 46, 5051-5055 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-22-5051


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, "Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153903 (2006).
  2. J. Darno, V. Tamosiunas, G. Fasching, J. Kröll, K. Unterrainer, M. Beck, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, C. Kremser, and P. Debbage, "Imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 12, 1879-1884 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 4425-4430 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244104 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, C. S. Joseph, Z. G. Root, R. H. Giles, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons," in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications IV, D. L. Woolard, R. J. Hwu, M. J. Rosker, and J. O. Jensen, eds., Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120Q (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully polarimetric W-band ISAR imagery of scale-model tactical targets using a 1.56 THz compact range," in Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery VIII, E. G. Zelnio, ed., Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890-5896 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Barcan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, "Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 575-577 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. E. Bründermann, M. Havenith, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, J. Kunsch, L. Mechold, and M. Abraham, "Turn-key compact high temperature terahertz quantum cascade lasers: imaging and room temperature detection," Opt. Express 14, 1829-1841 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Antenna model for wire lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. N. Ellison, B. J. Maddison, C. M. Mann, D. N. Matheson, M. L. Oldfield, S. Marazita, T. W. Crowe, P. Maaskant, and W. M. Kelly, "First results for a 2.5 THz Schottky diode waveguide mixer," presented at the 7th International Symposium Space THz Technology, Charlottesville, Virginia, 12-14 March 1996.
  14. H. Kräutle, E. Sauter, and G. V. Schultz, "Antenna characteristics of whisker diodes used as submillimeter receivers," Infrared Phys. 17, 477-483 (1977). [CrossRef]
  15. H. R. Fetterman, P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D. Fitzgerald, and N. R. Ericson, "Far-IR heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 151-154 (1978). [CrossRef]
  16. A. E. Siegman, "The antenna properties of optical heterodyne receivers," Appl. Opt. 5, 1588-1594 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. N. Grossman, "The coupling of submillimeter corner-cube antennas to Gaussian beams," Infrared Phys. 29, 875-885 (1989). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674-1676 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. IRlabs, Inc., Tucson, Arizona, USA.
  20. Thomas Keating Ltd, Billinghurst, West Sussex, England.
  21. H. P. Röser, M. Yamanaka, R. Wattenbach, and G. V. Schultz, "Investigations of optically pumped submillimeter wave laser modes," Intl. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 3, 839-868 (1982). [CrossRef]
  22. J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1941), Chap. 5.
  23. E. Snitzer, "Cylindrical dielectric waveguide modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961). [CrossRef]
  24. E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).
  25. J. J. Degnan, "The waveguide laser: a review," Appl. Phys. 11, 1-33 (1976). [CrossRef]
  26. J. J. Degnan, "Waveguide laser mode patterns in the near and far field," Appl. Opt. 12, 1026-1030 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. L. Abrams, "Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 838-843 (1972). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited